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Paul Knueven?. Algol 68 User Manual, March 8, 1978. Manual for CMU ALGOL 68S

by Paul McJones last modified 2010-05-25 20:10

Paul Knueven?. Algol 68 User Manual, March 8, 1978. Manual for CMU ALGOL 68S OCR'ed by W. B. Kloke from copy made by Andy Walker.

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This document was originally titled:

Algol 68 User Manual
March 8, 1978

It was intended to be a manual for the PDP-11 Algol68S system available for some
Operating Systems for the PDP-11, esp. the C.mmp (Hydra) multiprocessor system, and
Unix Version 6 or 7 systems.

The original manuscript was OCR'd by W.B.Kloke ( klokew@acm.org ). At the present stage
it is missing distinction between roman and italic characters which the original had.

As the system described allows "reserved word" stropping, this is not really
detrimental.

Thanks to Andy Walker from Nottingham, who made the copy available to me, and
who digged out the compiler also to be preserved by PUPS.

	At this early stage the best description of this document involves terms like
inaccurate, incomplete and misleading.

	Comments on the current document or suggestions for future Algol 68
documentation  should  be  directed  to  Paul  Knueven  or  sent  via  MAIL  to
ALGOL68@CMUA.

1.	Introduction

	User, meet Algol 68. Algol 68, meet user. When the bell rings come out fighting,
and may the best of you win.

	CMU Algol 68 is an extended version of the IFIP-approved Algol 68 sublanguage.
Disregarding certain features which are in neither official language, the CMU language
is less than the full language and more than the sublanguage.

	At this time no complete description of the CMU language is available. Chapter
3 contains the current version of what may some day be such a description. There
are three sources of information which may be of some help in learning the language.

	First, for someone familiar with Algol 68, the remaining sections of this chapter
sketch what is available in the CMU language. The differences between the full and
CMU languages are described briefly in sections 2.1 and 2.2.  Some understanding
of Algol 68 terminology is necessary to read these sections. The lists of basic symbols
(See 2.3.3), prelude operators (See 2.4.1) and prelude identifiers (See 2.4.2) should
remind the already knowledgeable user of what is possible.

	Second, copies of illuminating examples are available from Paul Knueven in
Science Hall 4209.

	Third, documents which describe the official languages can serve as a useful
introduction to the CMU language. The "Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language
Algol 68" (published in two journals, Acta Informatica Vol. 5, Fasc. 1-3, and SIGPLAN
Notices, May, 1977; and as a separate volume, call number 510.7844024 R45 in the
Science Hall Library) is the authoritative definition of the full Algol 68 language. This
is normally found to be difficult for the uninitiated reader to understand. Part V may
be helpful since it defines the standard operators and identifiers (mostly in terms of
short programs) and contains some sample programs. The official specification of the
sublanguage is "A Sublanguage of Algol 68" by P.G. Hibbard in May, 1977 SIGPLAN
Notices. It too is difficult to read. A textbook, A Practical Guide to Algol 68 by Frank
Pagan, is usually available in the CMU Bookstore. A survey article, "A Tutorial on Algol
68" by Andrew Tanenbaum, appeared in the June, 1976 Computer Surveys.



2.1.	Restrictions

	The following sections briefly describe the restrictions placed on the full Algol
68 language in order to define the basic CMU language.


2.1.1	Modes

	United-modes may not be specified in a particular-program.  However, it is
permitted to call routines defined in the standard prelude which have united-mode
parameters. (Upb and print are examples of such routines.) A multiple value may not
occur as a field of a structured value or as an element of a multiple value. Thus,
modes such as [ ][ ]amode and struct(..., [ ]amode, ...) are not allowed. There are no
flexible names. String is a primitive mode distinct from [ ]char. There are no short
modes. The only long modes are long int, long real, and long compl.

2.1.2	Clauses

	Void-collateral-clauses and vacuums are not allowed. A display may not occur in
a  position  which is  not  strong, or  as the only  phrase of  a closed-clause.
conformity-clauses are not permitted, since they are only useful in conjunction with
united-modes.




2.1.3	Declarations, Declarers and Indicators

	Heap-sample-generators are not permitted, so the heap-symbol may not appear
in a variable-declaration. A lower-bound is required in an actual-rowed-declarer, that
is, the form [u]amode is not permitted as a short version of [1:u]amode.  The
flexible-symbol and union-of-symbol are not allowed in declarers.


2.1.4	Units

	Local-generators may not occur as operands in formulas, in actual-bounds, or
before the first definition of a local range. A go-to-token is required in a jump. A
jump may not yield a value of mode proc amode. A jump may not by-pass the first
declaration of any local range containing the label which is its target. Strings always
have a lower bound of 1. A slice of a string may not have a revised-lower-bound and
is always dereferenced (i.e. it is not possible to slice out a name which refers to a
substring; this in turn means that it is not possible to assign to a substring).



2.1.5	Coercions

	The ref-rowing coercion is not allowed, that is, a value of mode ref amode is not
coerced to ref [ ]amode. A char value may be widened to a string value and a string
value may be widened to a [ ]char value.


2.1.6	Independence and Identification

	An  applied-mode-indication  may  not  occur  in  an  actual-rower  of  the
actual-declarer of its mode-definition. The defining occurrence of an indicator (other
than a label-definition) must precede its first applied occurrence. A priority-definition
of a dyadic-operator must precede the first operation-definition of that operator. The
priority of an operator may not be redefined in an inner range.  The test for
independence of operator-definitions is more restrictive than it is in the full language.
(Among other things, an operator may not be redefined in an inner range.)

2.1.7	Denotations

There is no void-denotation.


2.1.8	Symbols

	A bold tag may not be used as both an operator and a mode-indication in the
same reach. Only the operator-standards defined in the standard prelude may be used
in operation-definitions.



2.1.9	Standard Prelude

	Some environment enquiries are not available in a particular-program.  (See
2.4.3 for a list of identifiers and values)



2.1.10	Transput

	There is no formatted transput.  Certain enquiries and operations are not
supported. See 2.4 for a precise statement of which routines are supplied.


2.2.	Extensions

2.2.1	Safe-clause and Export-declaration

	A safe-clause allows a group of declarations to be encapsulated; that is, the
declarations introduce identifiers which are accessible by each other but are hidden
from the rest of the program. An export-declaration is used inside a safe-clause to
override the hiding capability of the safe-clause.  An identifier declared in an
export-declaration in a safe-clause is known in its usual reach.


2.2.2	Module and External-fetch

	These two extensions have been introduced to allow the construction of a
program by the linking together of several separately compiled program-texts. The
program of a single compilation may be given a "module name" which can be specified
in an external-fetch in the program of some other compilation. External-fetches are
used to access values which are not created in the program in which they appear

2.2.3	Code Values

	A code value is an object which corresponds to a machine language subroutine.
The   mode   of   a   code   value   is   code amode,   code(amode)bmode   or
code(amode,bmode)cmode, that is, a code value may have up to two parameters. A code
value can not be created by an Algol 68 program. The only way to access such a
value with an external-fetch.


2.2.4	New Modes

	It is possible to specify new, unique plain modes by writing newsimple or
newpile instead of the actual-declarer in a mode-definition. Actions such as assignation
and ascription may be applied to values of these modes, but there are no actions
which can do more that copy or move such values. By supplying code values which
take values of a new mode as parameters or return one as a result, it is possible to
create a subsystem to manipulate values which may be handled, but not broken apart,
by the user.



2.2.5	Mutually Recursive Modes

	Since the language is restricted to force the defining occurrence of an indicator
to precede any applied-occurrence of the indicator, an extension has been made to the
language to permit the introduction of mutually recursive modes.


2.2.6	Eventual Values

	An object called an eventual value is designed to allow the easy and natural
specification of parallel processing.


2.3.	The Representation Language


2.3.1	Tags and Bold Words

	Tags are used as identifiers, labels and field selectors. A tag is represented by
a letter followed by one or more letters or digits. The characters in a tag may be
separated by typographical display features (blank, line feed, form feed). The tags 'on
line end', 'online end' and 'onlineend' are equivalent.

	Bold words are the symbols which appear in this document in boldface. There
are two kinds of bold words.  Bold tags are used to specify mode indications and
operators. The other bold words are the "reserved words" or "keywords" of the
language; e.g. begin, while, true. Bold words consist of a bold letter followed by one or
more bold letters or digits.  Unlike tags, no typographical display features may
separate the characters. Since most computers do not have a boldface character set,
some provision must be made for the representation of these symbols.

	A stropping convention is a set of rules specifying how to indicate bold words.
There are currently four stropping conventions available.  They are called point,
upper, lower and res. The default is the point convention in which bold words are
indicated by a prefix strop character. This strop character may be either a point (.) or
an apostrophe (').  The use of the strop character is permitted in all stropping
conventions. The occurrence of a strop followed by an alphabetic character always
forces the alphanumeric sequence following the strop to be bold.

	The upper convention uses upper case letters to indicate bold letters, while
lower convention uses lower case letters. A strop may be used to override this as
described above. In conventions other than these, upper and lower case characters
for a given letter are considered equivalent.

	In res (reserved word) convention, typographical display features may not
appear between the characters of a tag or the symbols of a denotation. A sequence
of alphanumeric characters surrounded by disjunctors (non-alphanumeric characters or
typographical display features) represents a bold word, if one exists, with that
particular spelling; otherwise it represents a tag. The lexically first occurrence of a
user-introduced bold tag must be stropped.


2.3.2	Pragmat Items

	The following pragmat items are implemented. They act as compiler directives
when they appear between a pair of matching pragmat symbols (i.e. pragmat, pr, or ::).


listing		Enable production of compiler listing
lower		Set stropping convention to lower
nolisting	Suppress production of compiler listing
nowarnings	Suppress output of compiler warning messages
page		Skip to top of new page in listing output (not implemented)
res		Set stropping convention to res
point		Set stropping convention to point
upper		Set stropping convention to upper
warnings	Enable output of compiler warning messages


2.3.3	Basic Symbols

	The following are the non-tag symbols of Algol 68. Those which appear as
boldface must be represented according to some stropping convention. Remember in
res stropping no tag may be spelled the same as any of these. In some cases there
are two representations of a symbol. Where this is so, both representations appear
on the same line.

Symbol		Where used

at	@	revised-lower-bound of slice
begin		closed-clause, collateral-clause
bits		declarer
bool		declarer
by		loop-clause
bytes		declarer
case		case-clause
channel		declarer
char		declarer
co		comment
code		code-declarer
codeop		code-operation-declaration
comment		comment
compl		declarer
do		loop-clause
efas		safe-clause
elif		conditional-clause
else		conditional-clause
end		closed-clause, collateral-clause
esac		case-clause
event		eventual-declarer
exit		completer in serial-clause
export		export-declaration
ext		external-fetch
false		boolean-denotation
fi		conditional-clause
file		declarer
for		loop-clause
from		loop-clause
go		with to in jump
goto		jump
heap		generator
if		conditional-clause
in		case-clause
int		declarer
is	:=:	identity-relation
isnt	:/=:	identity-relation
loc		generator, variable-declaration
long		declarer, denotation
mode		mode-declaration
module		module-declaration
newsimple		mode-declaration
newpile		mode-declaration
nil		nihil
od		loop-clause
of		selection
op		operation-declaration
ouse		case-clause
out		case-clause
par		parallel-clause
pr		pragmat
pragmat		pragmat
prio		priority-declaration
proc		procedure-decl4rer
proctime	declarer
real		declarer
ref		reference-declarer
safe		safe-clause
secloc		generator
sema		declarer
short		declarer, denotation
skip		skip
string		declarer
struct		structure-declarer
then		Conditional-clause
to		loop-clause, with go in jump
true		boolean-denotation
void		declarer
while		loop-clause
(		(open symbol) closed-, collateral-, conditional-, case-clauses
)		(close symbol) closed-, collateral-, conditional-, case-clauses
,		(comma symbol) case-, collateral-clauses, declaration-list
:		(colon symbol) label, routine-text, trimmer, bounds
;		(semicolon symbol) serial-clause
:=		(becomes symbol) assignation
[		(sub symbol) slice, rowed-declarer
]		(bus symbol) slice, rowed-declarer
=		(equals symbol) identity-, mode-, priority-declarations
#		(comment symbol) comment
::		(pragmat symbol) pragmat
!	|	(stick symbol) brief-conditional-clause, brief-case-clause
!:	|:	(again symbol) brief-conditional-clause, brief-case-clause
\	e	(times ten to the power symbol) real-denotation
"		(quote symbol) character-, string-denotations
""		(quote image symbol) character-, string-denotations

	The following bold Words are used in the full Algol 68 Revised language and are
not included in the CMU language.

empty
flex
format
union

2.4.	Standard and Particular Preludes


2.4.1	Operators

	The following is a list of the operators which are defined in the standard and
particular preludes of CMU Algol 68. Two techniques are used here to make the list
sh9rter than it would be otherwise. First, the letter L indicates places where zero or
one occurrence of the symbol long must be inserted. All the L's in a particular entry
of the list must be repeaced by the same number of long's. Second, an asterisk is used
to indicate that a dyadic operator exists both with the parameter modes in the order
shown and with the parameter modes interchanged.

	All of the operators are currently available except those which require or return
a value of a long mode.

Operator	Modes

	abs	proc(L int)L int
		proc(L real)L real
		proc(L compl)L compl
		proc(bool)int
		proc(bits)int
		proc(char)int
	and	proc(bool,bool)bool
		proc(bits,bits)bits
	arg	proc(L compl)L real
	bin	proc (int)bits
	conj	proc(L compl)L compl
	down	proc (sema)void
/:=	divab	proc(ref L real,L real)ref L real
		proc(ref L real,L int)ref L real
		proc(ref L compl,L compl)ref L compl
		proc(ref L compl,L real)ref L compl
		proc(ref L compl,L int)ref L compl
	elem	proc(int,bits)bool
		proc(int,bytes)char
	entier	proc(L real)L int
=	eq	Same as gt plus
		proc(L compl,L compl)bool
		proc(L int,L compl)bool*
		proc(L real,L compl)bool*
		proc(bool,bool)bool
		proc(bits,bits)bool
>=	ge	Same as gt plus
		proc(bits,bits)bool
>	gt	proc(L int,L int)bool
		proc(L real,L real)bool
		proc(L int,L real)bool*
		proc(char,char)bool
		proc(string,string)bool
		proc(char,string)bool*
		proc(bytes,bytes)bool
<=	le	Same as ge
	level	proc(sema)int
		proc(int)sema
	leng	proc(int)long int
		proc(real)long real
		proc(compl)long compl
<	lt	Same as gt
	lwb	proc(rows)int
		proc(string)int
		proc(int,rows)int
-:=	minusab	Same as divab plus
		proc(ref L int,L int)ref L int
%*	mod	proc(L int,L int)L int
%*:=	modab	proc(ref L int,L int)ref L int
	ne	Same as eq
	not	proc(bool)bool
		proc(bits)bits
	odd	proc(L int)bool
	or	proc(bool,bool)bool
		proc(bits,bits)bits
%	over	proc(L int,L int)L int
%:=	overab	proc(ref L int,L int)ref L int
+:=	plusab	Same as minusab plus
		proc(ref string,string)ref string
		proc(ref string,char)ref string
+=:	plusto	proc(string,ref string)ref string
		proc(char,ref string)ref string
	repr	proc(int)char
	round	proc(L real)L int
	shl	proc(bits,int)bits
	shorten	proc(long int)int
		proc(long real)real
		proc(long compl)compl
	shr	proc(bits,int)bits
	sign	proc(L int)L int
		proc(L real)L int
*:=	timesab	Same as minusab plus
		proc(ref string,int)ref string
	up	proc(sema)void
	upb	Same as lwb
-		proc(L int)L int
		proc(L real)L real
		proc(L compl)L compl
		proc(L int,L int)L int
		proc(L real,L real)L real
		proc(L compl,L compl)L compl
		proc(L int,L real)L real*
		proc(L int,L compl)L compl*
		proc(L real,L compl)L compl*
+		Same as - plus
		proc(string,string)string
		proc(char,char)string
		proc(char,string)string*
*		proc(L int,L int)L int
		proc(L real,L real)L real
		proc(L compl,L compl)L compl
		proc int,L real)L real*
		proc(L int,L coinpl)L compl*
		proc(L real,L compl)L compl*
		proc(int,char)string*
		proc(int,string)string*
/		proc(L int,L int)L real
		proc(L real,L real)L real
		proc(L compl,L compl)L compl
		proc(L int,L real)L real*
		proc(L int,L compl)L compl*
		proc(L real,L compl)L compl*
^		proc(L int,int)L int
		proc(L real,int)L real
		proc(L compl,int)L compl
**		Same as ^
+*		proc(L int,L int)L compl
		proc(L real,L real)L compl


2.4.2	Identifiers

	All of the following identifiers are available except 'associate', 'stand back', and
'stand back channel'.

Identifier	Mode

arccos		proc(real)real
arcsin		proc(real)real
arctan		proc(real)real
associate	proc(ref file,ref string)void
bits pack	proc([]bool)bits
bytes pack	proc([]char)byles
chan		proc(ref file)channel
char number	proc(ref file)int
close		proc(ref file)void
cos		proc(real)real
establish	proc(ref file,string,channel,int,int,int)int
exp		proc(real)real
fixed		proc(number,int,int)string
float		proc(number,int,int,int)string
get		proc (ref file,[]in)void
get bin		proc(ref file,[]inbin)void
last random	ref int
line number	proc(ref file)int
ln		proc(real)real
make term	proc (ref file,string)void
max abs char	int
max int		int
max real	real
new line	proc(ref file)void
new page	proc(ref file)void
next random	proc(ref int)real
on line end	proc (ref file,proc(ref file)bool)
on logical file end	proc(ref file,proc(ref file)bool)
on page end	proc(ref file,proc(ref file)bool)
on physical file end	proc(ref file,proc(ref file)bool)
open		proc(ref file,string,channel)int
page number	proc (ref file)int
pi		real
print		proc([]out)void
put		proc(ref file,[]out)void
put bin		proc(ref file,[]outbin)void
random		proc real
read		proc([]in)void
read bin	proc ([]inbin)void
reset		proc(ref file)void
scratch		proc(ref file)void
set		proc (ref file,int,int,int)void
sin		proc (real)real
small real	real
space		proc (ref file)void
sqrt		proc(real)real
stand back	ref file
stand back channel	channel
stand in	ref file
stand in channel	channel
stand out	ref file
stand out channel	channel
tan		proc (real )real
whole		proc(number,int)string
write		proc(ref file,[]out)void
write bin	proc(ref file,[]outbin)void
cons in channel	channel
cons out channel	channel
fixed page channel	channel
get proc time	code(ref proctime)void
musecs		code(proctime)real
on error	code(proc(int,int,bits)bool)void
on sys trace	code(code(int,bits)void)void
on tick		code (proc (int,int)void)void
sos file channel	channel
start proc time	code void
sys trace	code(int,bits)void
var page channel	channel
warning level	code(int)void


2.4.3	Environment Enquiries

The CMU language does not include all of the environment enquiries.  The
following list gives the values of all the environment enquiries; those which are
available in the language are marked by an asterisk

Identifier		Value

int lengths		2
int shorths		1
max int*		2**15	- 1	(i.e. 32767)
max long int		2**31	- 1	(i.e. 2147483647)
real lengths		2
real shorths		1
max real*		(2 ** 127)-(2 ** 103)  (about 1.70141173319o38)
max long real		(2 *4 127)-(2 ** 71)  (about 1.70l41l8346046922837e38)
small real*		(2	**	-23)	(about l.l920928955e-7)
small long real		(2	**	-55)	(about 2.775557561562892351e-17)
bits lengths		1
bits shorths		1
bits width		15	(also upb []bool(8r1) )
bytes lengths		1
bytes shorths		1
bytes width		2  (also upb []char(bytes b = bytes pack(""); b) )
max abs char*		127
null character		repr 0
flip			"T"
flop			"F"
error char		"*"
blank			repr 32


3.	Introduction  to  CMU  Algol 68


	This chapter is meant to become a complete description of and introduction to
the Algol 68 language (or, that variety of it which is available at CMU). When this goal
is achieved the preceding chapter will no longer be needed.

	As this chapter is being developed the attitude of the authors is that whatever
information has been written will be included in the document.  The idea is that
something is better than nothing. This means that at any given moment the contents
may seem incomplete, uneven in style, lack polish, and/or without coherent
organization. We will frequently refer the reader to "more complete documents" in
cases where we have been too hurried or too lazy to supply details. The reader is
asked to be as forgiving as possible.

	This tutorial is definitely intended for a reader with some familiarity or prior
experience with other programming languages, be they even as simple as BASIC or as
weird as pure LISP. Non-programmers should give up right here and go off to take a
course in programming. When a new concept is introduced which is called by other
names in other languages, the other names are presented in [brackets] after the Algol
68 name of the concept.


3.1.	Preface

	The method of exposition used in this chapter is mostly the presentation of
examples--small snatches of program text that illustrate various corners of the
language. In spite of the tutorial nature of the chapter, therefore, we hope that it will
be usable as a reference.  Every effort has been made to use examples that are
typical of user programs; most of the larger ones have been copied directly from such
programs.

	The order of the sections is such that there is as little forward referencing as
possible, i.e. it is (hopefully) seldom necessary to look at a later section in order to
uqderstand some earlier example. This organization has peculiar consequence: that
certain sections, such as the section on transput (input/output), which you must know
at least a little about in order to write useful programs, are placed near the end. Don't
be disturbed by this; everything you need to know is here, somewhere or other.

	Another peculiar practice we have followed, for a variety of good reasons, is the
carrying over of definitions from one example to another. An identifier declaration
may appear in one example, and the identifier so declared may appear in the next few
examples or even reappear a couple of pages later. Since this practice can cause
confusion, we have tried not to overuse it; but be warned.

	A note about terminology: pursuing the goals of precision and unambiguousness,
the authors of the Revised Report invented a whole new kind of grammar and a whole
slew of new words, for the description of programming languages in general and Algol
68 in particular. Those two goals were of little interest to us in writing this tutorial,

and we have used a careless mixture of terms from the Revised Report with terms and
concepts from other programming languages and literature to say what we mean.
However, when we have used terms from the Revised Report, we have tried to be
consistent with the original use of those terms.



3.2.	Stropping, Upper and Lower Case, and other Perversions

	This section describes the rules for using upper and lower case letters, for
using blanks within identifiers, and for distinguishing those things that in other
languages are called "reserved words" or "keywords". In the CMU system there are
four alternative sets of rules; you can choose the one you like best for a program, and
if you are indecisive (or perverse), you can even switch from one set of rules to
another in the middle of a program. Before describing the four alternatives and giving
examples of them, we'll explain why they are the way they are.

	The rules of Algol 68 on this subject are more appropriate for programs which
are published (i.e. as algorithms in textbooks or journals) than for programs which
must be input to a computer using some commonly available input device.  It is
intended that programs be written using two alphabets: keywords (such as if and end),
operators (mod, abs), and modes (real, bool) are supposed to be written in "bold face",
while identifiers, such as variables and procedure names, are supposed to be written
with the non-bold alphabet (perhaps this should be called "timid face"). If you can use
input devices with both lower and upper case letters, you may find it convenient to
pretend that upper case letters are bold face and lower case letters are timid face, or
vice versa. Many programmers do not even have the luxury of two cases of letters.
To these unfortunates, two options are open. They may either distinguish the words
which are meant to be bold face by putting a dot or an apostrophe before each one;
or they may not. You may ask, "Why should I put a dot in front of each bold face
Word if I don't have to"? The privilege that this allows you, besides compatibility with
other compilers which insist that you use dots or apostrophes, is that you may use
blanks in your timid face words. For instance, the predefined variable "lastrandom"
may be referred to as "last random", "lastran dom", "lastr and om", and so forth,
indiscriminately. (Note that you can never use blanks in bold face words, no matter
what set of rules you use).

	Later, in section 3.4, we'll show how to indicate to the compiler which set of
rules you prefer; first, here are samples of all four styles:


#
"Upper" convention: keywords, etc. are in upper case;
all others must be in lower case.
#
IF a THEN b := c FI;
#

#
"Lower" convention: exactly the reverse of "Upper"

if D then E := F fi;

#
"Res" convention: keywords, etc. are reserved" and need
not be specially distinguished. There are some restrictions:
#
if UsingResconvention ThEn iDentiFiersmustBERuntogEthErwithoutblanks fi;
#
"Point" or "Strop" convention: keywords, etc. are distinguished by
starting them with a period or apostrophe. THIS IS THE DEFAULT.
#
	if 'Not using res convenTION tHEN IdentiFIERS MAY CONtain blanks 'Fi;



	Incidentally, no matter what convention you are using, you may always use a
period or apostrophe to signal the start of a bold face word.



3.3.  Comments

	We mention the Comment first because it is the simplest and easiest to use
construct in the whole Algol 68 language. The semantics of comments is: you may put
as many as you like anywhere in your program, and it will execute just as if you had
not put in any at all. Those of you who are familiar with program verification will
realize that this leads to a remarkably simple proof rule for this versatile construct.
You will find it helpful to actually strew your program with these useful little
creatures.

	A word of caution, however. Like many others, the CMU ALGOL 68 compiler is
considerably less rigorous about checking the correctness of your comments, than
about checking the other constructs in your program. Indeed, errors in your comments
are frequently not caught at run time, even after several runs of the program. Thus
you, the programmer, must be extra careful about such errors; they can be insidious
and extremely damaging.

	A comment may begin with the letter # or with either of the keywords co and
comment; it must be ended with the same thing that began it:


# The following code is wrong. #
co The following code cannot possibly be executed. co
comment
"Not only was it difficult to modify the evaluation function --
It was difficutt even to find it in the listing of the program."
David Slate
comment


	A comment may occur anywhere in a program (except between the individual
characters of a single word, number, operator, etc.), and may stretch over several
lines.  A common mistake is to forget the indication of the end of a comment; see
section 3.9.

3.4.	Pragmats [pseudo-comments; directives]

	Pragmats are a catch-all language feature, by means of which you can tell the
ALGOL 68 system miscellaneous things about your program and how you would like it
treated. A pragmat may begin with a double colon (::), or with either of the keywords
pr or pragmat, and like a comment it must be ended with the same thing that began it:



:: upper nowarnings ::
COMMENT
	"upper" indicates that the program is written in upper convention,
at least until the next pragmat. "nowarnings" tells the compiler not
to print any warning messages that should arise, on the user's terminal
COMMENT

PR point nolisting PR
.Pragmat
lower
listing
.Pragmat



	Note that the individual pragmat items are timid face words; also, if a pragmat
item changes the convention for distinguishing bold face from timid face, it does not
take effect until the end of the pragmat. A list of the available pragmat items is in
section 2.3.2.


3.5.	Values, Modes, and Actions

	In this section we will look at the data structuring and manipulation features of
Algol; in the next two sections we will look at control structures: first for ordinary
sequential control, then for parallel control.



3.5.1	Standard Prelude [Predeclared; built-in] Modes [Types]

     We will refer to what you may already know of as "data types", by the name
"modes".  We will look at rowed modes [arrays; vectors; matrices] and structured
modes [structures; records] later; but a number of more basic modes are available built
in to the language:

int	integer			[fixed point]
real	real			[floating point]
bool	boolean			[logical]
bits	small mask - 15 booleans	[set; packed boolean]
char	character	
string	string	
bytes	short string - 2 characters	
compl	complex	

plus others which we will cover later. Many examples of the use of values of these
modes will appear in subsequent sections


3.5.2	Various Operators

	Algol has most of the arithmetic operators you know and love from other
languages. Here are just a few samples:


3 + 4	integer addition	proc (int,int) int
a >= b	comparison		proc (int,int) bool
abs x	absolute value		proc (int) int
s or t	boolean operator	proc (bool,bool) bool

There are other operators you may not have seen before:

# Two flavors of division #

3 % 2	yields 1		proc (int,int) int
3 / 2	yields 1.5		proc (int,int) real

# Two flavors of real-to-integer conversion #

round	1.6	yields	2	proc (real) int
entier	1.6	yields	1	proc (real) int
round	-1.4	yields	-1
entier	-1.4	yields	-2

# Module #

11 %* 3		yields 2 	proc (int,int) int
-11 %* 3	yields 1
11 %* -3	yields 2
-11 %* -3	yields 1

# Exponentiation - ONLY integer exponents, please #

4 ^ 3		yields 64	proc (int,int) int
4 ** 3		means the same
1.5 ^ -2	yields 0.44444...	proc (real,int) real
#	after the declaration #
compl z  (0-0, 1.0);
z ^ 2	yields (-1.0, 0.0)	proc (compl,int) compl

#	Complex operations #

#	after the declaration #
compl a = (3.0, 4.0),
	b = (4.9, 3.0);
a + b	yields (7.0, 7.0)	addition
a - b	yields (-1.0, 1.0)	subtraction
a * b	yields (0.0, 25.0)	multiplication
a / b	yields (0.96, 0.28)	division
- a	yields (-3.0, -4.0)	negation
conj a	yields (3.0, -4.0)	conjugation
abs a	yields 5.0	magnituda
arg a	yields 0.9273	angle in radians

#	String & character operations #

"AbC" + "dEf"	yields "AbCdEf"	concatenation
"X" * 4		yields "XXXX"	replication
3 * "zQ"	yields "zQzQzQ"

#	Bits operations; denotation [representation] of Bits values #

16rf, 8r17, 4r33, 2r1111,	all denote the same BITS value
bin 15		yields the same BITS value
16rf0 shr 4	yields 16rf	logical shifting
16rf shl 4	yields 16rf0
16rf0 >= 16r70	yields true	set inclusion
16rf0 >= 16rf	yields false
4 elem 16rf	yields true	bit extraction

#	Various kinds of conversion #

repr 65		yields "a"	proc (int) char (ASCII conversion)
abs "a"		yields 65	proc (char) int
abs true	yields 1	proc (bool) int
abs false	yields 0	
abs 16rf	yields 15	proc (bits) int
bin 15		yields l6rf	proc (int) bits

#	Miscellany #

odd 3		yields true	proc (int) bool
odd 2		yields false
sign -2		yields -1	proc (int) int
sign 0		yields 0
sign 1001	yields 1

3.5.3	Identifiers, Variables, Assignation

	In Algol 68, the concepts of variables, pointers (called "references" or "names"),
and assignation have been reorganized and unified, with consequences that are serious
and far-reaching. We will defer discussion of this until section 3.5.7; in this section we
will just present a few simple declarations, such as are likely to be familiar from other
programming languages.

	Identifiers must be declared before they are used. Definitions of identifiers
follow "range structure", which is similar to Algol 60 "block structure"; the differences
will be explained in section 3.6.4.


#	Identity [constant; Parameter] declarations #

int j = 3;
real a = 2.7818281828;
real a = b + c;	# need not be constant #

# variable declarations #

int g;
	equivalent to
ref int g = loc int;

# initialized variable declarations #

int k := 3;
	equivalent to
ref int k = loc int := 3;

compl i := (0.0, 1.0);
	or alternately
compl i := 0.0 +* 1.0;	# +* is the "plus i times" operator #

# assignation #

k := 6 + m;
a := b := c := 4.0;

# operations combined with assignation #

k +:= 1
	equivalent to
k := k + 1

b %*:= 3
	equivalent to
b := b %* 3

n := p +:= q + r
	equivalent to
p +:= (q + r);
n := p

	special case for strings:
s1 +=: s2
	equivalent to
s2 := s1 + s2

	as well as the usual

s1 +:= s2
	equivalent to
s1 := s1 + s2


3.5.4	Coercions [Conversions]

	In Algol 68, as in many languages, it is often possible to use a value of one mode
in a case where a value of some other mode is really required. For instance, in the
following declaration:


compl c = (3, 4);


the int values 3 and 4 are used where real values are required. In cases like this the
system automatically converts the value from the given mode to the required mode;
this is called a coercion.  In Algol 68 there are limitations on what coercions are
automatically done where, and you may occasionally find it necessary to explicitly
force a conversion to be done, by means of a "cast":


int i = 1234;
...
real r = real (i) ^ 2;
#
The exponentiation would overflow if it were done as an integer
operation; therefore i is converted to a real, and a real
operation is performed.
#

Most of the time, however, casts are unnecessary.

	Here we present some of the simpler coercions; more will be presented in later
sections. Note that there is no coercion from real to int; you must use round or entier
for this purpose.


#	Widening #

#	integer to real #

real a := 3;

# - real to complex #

compl z := 3;

# - character to string #

string $ := a

#	Dereferencing #

int a, b;

a := b;


3.5.5	Multiple Values [Arrays; Vectors; Matrices]

	Algol 68 multiples, also called "rows", are considerably generalized from the
arrays of earlier programming languages. The size of a multiple need not be known at
compile time, and its lower bound need not be 0 or 1. Indefinitely many dimensions
are permitted. Any contiguous sub-matrix of a matrix, or sub-vector of a vector or
matrix, may be renamed and considered to be a matrix on its own (this is called
"trimming" or, when the number of dimensions of the sub-matrix or vector is less than
that of the original, "slicing"). Whole rows or sub-rows may be assigned in a single
assignment operation. Finally, there is an automatic coercion, rowing, which converts a
value of any mode to a row (of length 1) of values of the same mode. These are all
illustrated below.

	Strings may be trimmed and sliced as if they were rows of characters. However,
they are not rows of characters, and there are some restrictions on this, as will be
explained later.


#	Row identity declarations #

[]int ri = (1, 2, g, h, 1001);
[]string rs = ("a", "bc", "def");

# Row variable declarations #

[6:8]real rr;
[1:5]int rri := (1,2, g, h, 1001);

# Dynamic bounds #

[1:(int n; read (n); n)]real rrr;

# Coercions involving rows #

# - Rowing: Anymode to []Anymode #

[]bool rb = true;

# - Widening: Bits to []Bool #

[]bool rb = 16r7f0f;

# -  Widening: Bytes or String to []Char #

char re = "abc";

# Multiple dimensions #

[,]int r2i  (ri, (3, 6, i, 1002, j));
[1:2,4:5]int r22i = ((1, 1), (1,1));

#	Slicing [indexing; subscripting] #

ri[5]		yields 1001
rri[6]		yields 1   (after dereferencing)
r2i[2,1]	yields 3

# Size enquiries #

lwb rr		yields 6	lower bound
upb rr		yields 8	upper bound
1 upb r2i	yields 2	upper bound of first dimension
2 upb r2i	yields 5	upper bound of second dimension

# Trimming #

[,]int r9 = ((1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6), (7, 8, 9));

r9[1, ]		is like (1, 2,3)	omitted subscripts
r9[ ,1]		is like (1, 4, 7)
r9[2:3,2:3]	is like ((5, 6), (8, 9))     trimmers
r9[2:3, ]	is like ((4, 5, 6), (7, 8, 9))
r9[2: ,]	is the same as r9[2:3, ]  omitted upper-bound [oo]
r9[ :2,]	is the same as r9[1:2, ]  omitted lower-bound
r9[:,:]		is the same as r9

# Revised lower bounds #

[,]int r94 = r9 [@4,@6];

#
Now, r94 has the same elements as r9,
but they're numbered (bounded) differently.
#


1 lwb r94	yields	4
1 upb r94	yields	6
2 twb r94	yields	6
2 upb r94	yields	8

r94[4,7]	yields 2
r94[4, ]	is like r9[1,@6]
r94[5:6,7:8]	is like r9[2:3,2:3],
		i.e.	like ((5, 6), (8, 9))

[,]int rx = r94[@5,7:8@-3]

1 lwb rx	yields	5
1 upb rx	yields	7
2 lwb rx	yields	-3
2 upb rx	yields	-2

rx[:,:]		is like ((2, 3), (5, 6), (8, 9))
rx[5,-2]	yields 3

# Row assignation #
# The bounds of the source and the destination must be identical #

rr[7:8] := (pi, rri[4]);

[1:3,1:3]real rr9;
rr9		:= r9;		legal
rr9[2:3,2:3]	:= r9[2:3,2:3];	legal
rr9[ ,2:3]	:= rx;		illegal
rr9[ ,2:3]	:= rx[@1,@1];	legal
-rr9[2,1] := 8;
rr9[2, ] := (30, x + y,1.0);

#	String slicing & trimming #

string s := 'abcdefg'
s[2]	yields "b"	(char)
s[2:2]	yields "b"	(string)
s[2:5]	yields "bcde"
s[ :4]	yields "abcd"
s[3: ]	yields "cdef"

Note, however, that substrings cannot be assigned to; and that revised lower bounds
may not be used with strings. Thus the following assignations and declarations are
ALL ILLEGAL:


s[1:3] := "dfh";
s[5] := "Q";
string t = s[1:4@2];
string r = s[@0];


3.5.6	Structured Values [Structures; Records]

	We will give a few examples of the use of structures and structured values here.
However, much more interesting and instructive examples will be given later: in section
3.5.7, when we discuss pointers, and in section 3.6.3, when we discuss operator
definitions. The examples we give here are not likely to be very interesting.

	A structure mode is composed of a group of fields of various modes. These
fields are addressed by selectors; each field selector must be distinct from the other
selectors in the same structure, but need not be distinct from other selectors in other
structures, or even from other identifiers, such as those declared as variables. If two
structure modes have fields whose modes and selectors all match, the modes are said
to be "equivalent", i.e. they are effectively the same mode.  For instance, after the
declarations:

mode a = struct (real r, string s);
mode b = struct (real r, string s);


a x;	# defining a variable called x #
b y;



	the assignation


x := y


is legal, because the modes of x and y are the effectively the same.

	The most familiar structured mode is compl, which is defined in the Standard
Prelude:


mode compl = struct (real re, im);



Here are some examples of uses of this mode, and other structured modes:


compl a := (2.1, 3.2);
...
re of a +:= 10.5;
if im of a > 0
then a *:= 2 fi;

[]compl rc = ((1,2), (3,4), (5,6));
re of rc	is like (1, 3, 5)
im of rc[2:3] is like (4, 6)


mode rational = struct (int num, denom);
mode city = struct (string name, bytes state);
city here := ("Pittsburgh", bytes pack("PA"));

flame of hera := "McKeesport"




3.5.7	More about Names, References, and Pointers

	You will find this section indispensable if you write  any  programs which
manipulate lists, trees, graphs, or other data structures involving pointers; but you will
find it useful regardless of what kind of programs you write, for understanding what is
behind Algol 68, and what goes on when a high-level programming language runs on a
computer.

	Henceforth we will not use the word "name" as it is usually used, i.e. as a
synonym for "identifier", but in its technical sense. In Algol 68 a "name" is a particular
kind of value, one which can "refer" to some other value. The concept of "name"
corresponds approximately to the notion of "address" or "pointer" in assembly level
programming; the "contents" of an address corresponds to the thing referred to by a
name.

For instance, consider the declaration:


int a := 3;



	This declares a "name" a, which is initialized to refer to 3. A later assignation
may cause a to refer 4 or same other value of mode int. a itself is not of mode int, but
of mode ref int; in general if a value is a name, its mode is ref x where x is some other
mode.

	Note the difference between the above declaration, and this declaration, which is
similar in superficial appearance:


int b = 3;


Here b is a value of mode int. It is not a name, and does not "refer to" 3; instead it IS
3, and cannot be set to 4 any more than 3 can change to 4. This may seem obvious,
but consider another example, which people sometimes find confusing.  After the
declaration:


compl c =(3,4);


C is not a name, but a value of mode compl; neither its real part nor its imaginary part
may be altered.

	Names themselves can be referred to; this leads us to the concept of "pointers".
Consider this structure mode definition:

mode list = struct (int item, ref list next);

	Each value of mode list has two field sub-values: an integer, and a pointer to
another value of mode list.  (The pointer may be nil; nil is a special value which may be
thought of as a "pointer to nothing", which can be used as if it were any mode ref x.
We will see more examples of nil later.) We may declare a variable b which refers to
list values:

list b := (3, nil);

# And we may make its pointer field point to itself: #

next of b := b;

# Or we may ordain a new list value for b to point to: #

next of b := heap list := (5, nil);

# Let's do it again: #

next of next of b := heap list := (10, nil);


	The last two examples illustrate the use of a "generator", in particular a
"heap-generator".  Names are a peculiar sort of value: new names can be created.
Programs cannot create new integers, obviously; the integers have all been created
already. They cannot even create new values of mode list, as you will realize if you
think about it, though they can mention ones that have never been mentioned before.
But programs can create new names. This is analogous to finding new addresses in
which to carry out computations. The generator: heap list finds a new name which can
refer to list values; the assignation:

heap list := (5, nil)

initializes that new name to refer to a list value; and the further assignation to next of
b sets the pointer field of b to be that new name. Here is another example, from a
"real" program:

mode philosopher = struct (ref philosopher left, right,
	sema private,
	int number of forks,
	string name);

philosopher head := (nil, nil, level 0, 0, names[1]);
ref philosopher new;
left of head := right of head := head;
for i from 2 to upb names
do
new := loc philosopher := (left of head, head, level 0,
	0, names[i]);
	right of left of new := left of right of new := new
od;


Here, a group of philosopher values are set up to point to each other in a circle. The
expression loc philosopher is a use of a "local-generator", similar in its action to the
heap-generator used earlier. The distinction between loc and heap is rather technical
and will not be covered in this tutorial; for now, you should generally use heap, until
you find out when it is legal to use loc.


	Note that a declaration of a variable is a creation of a new name, and thus
involves (at least implicitly) a generator. In fact, as we noted briefly in section 3.5.3,
the two declarations:


int a := 3;

# and #

ref int a = loc int := 3;

are identical in their effect; the first is technically just an abbreviation of the second.

You can see why, in the section on coercions (3.5.4), we said that the assignation
a := b involved a dereferencing. The mode of b is ref int; since- a can only refer to an
int, b must be dereferenced (the thing referred to by b must be got at) before the
	assignation can take place.

	There are two constructs, is and isnt, also known as ":=:" and ":/=:", which can be
used to test for equality between pointers. (They look like operators, but for technical
reasons they are considered a separate kind of construct, "identity relations").  For
instance, after:


int a := 3, b := 3;
ref int c = b;

a = b	yields true, but
a is b	yields false
b is a	yields true

In using is and isnt, it is frequently necessary to use casts to insure that their
operators are of the "intended" modes. For instance, after:


list b := (3, nil),
c := (4, nil),
d := (5, nil);

next of b := next of c := d;

next of b is next of a			yields false, but
ref list(next of b) is ref list(next of c)	yields true
next of d is nil			yields false, but
ref list (next of d) is nil		yields true


Here, an expression such as next of b has mode ref ref list; the two pointers which we
wish to test for identicalness both have mode ref list. We could have gotten by with a
cast on only one of them, instead of casting both of them as in the first of the two
examples above.

3.6.	Sequential Processing

	In this section we'll look at some of the standard control structures of Algol 68,
all  of  which  have  relatives  in  other  programming  languages.  These  include
closed-clauses [blocks; compound expressions], choice-clauses including "if-then-else"
and case clauses, loops including while loops and for loops, procedures, operator
definitions, and some miscellany such as gotos and completers. The most important
new notion here is that of the "serial clause", as explained in section 3.6.4, and the
notion of "range structure" that goes with it.



3.6.1	Procedures [Routines; Subroutines; Functions]

	Every procedure returns a value; however, by specifying that the mode of the
value returned by a procedure is void, you effectively cause Algol 68 to forget that
the  procedure  returns  a  value.   The  distinction  between  "call-by-value",
"call-by-reference", and the dreaded "call-by-name", familiar to users of Algol 60,
Fortran, and many other languages, is gone, but you may redraw the distinction
yourself: if you specify that the first parameter, x, of a procedure, is of mode int, then
in the body of that procedure, x is an int just as if you had declared it with an
identity-declaration; thus you cannot assign to it, just as you cannot assign to 3. If, on
the other hand, you specify that x is to be of mode ref int, then in the body of that
procedure, x is like an integer variable, i.e. it is a name which can refer to int values,
and you can assign int values to it. You then cannot call the procedure and pass 3 to
it as its first parameter, however; 3 is an int value, and cannot be coerced to be mode
ref int. When you pass some ref int value to the procedure, say a variable called a,
then while the procedure is executing, x and a are the same name, and assignations to
one have the same effect as assignations to the other, i.e. both of them are made to
refer to the same int value


# A procedure #

proc iterative factorial = (int a) int:
begin
	int result := 1;
for i to a do result *:= i od;
result
end;

# A procedure with no parameters and no result #

proc greeting = void: print (("Hello", newline));

# A procedure with several parameters #

proc print title page = (string title, author,
int head size, center size) void:
begin
to head size do print (newline) od;
print centered (title);
to center size do print (newline) od;
print centered (author);
print (newpage)
end;

# Recursion - a procedure calling itself #

proc recursive factorial = (int n) int:
if n <= 0
then 1
else n * recursive factorial (n -1)
fi;


# Procedure variables #


proc (int) int facto;
...
facto :=	if phase of moon = full
then iterative factorial
	else recursive factorial
fi;
...
print (facto (gross national product));
...
# Deproceduring (a coercion) - calling a procedure without parameters #

...

proc simulation cycle = (int die1, die2) void
proc print results = void:

to simulation length
do
simulation cycle (# rolling the dice: #
1 + entier (random * 6),
1 + entier (random * 6));
#
random is a proc real declared in the Standard
Prelude, whose result is uniformly distributed in
[0,1). Above, it is deprocedured two times.
#
print results
# here print results was deprocodured. #
od;

proc real a;
a := random;
# here deproceduring does NOT occur. #




3.6.2	Transput [Input-output; I/O]

	Now that we've presented Procedures, we may as well present Transput, though
it doesn't strictly belong in this section because it isn't a "control structure".

	Algol programs do all transput by means of a uniform set of file-handling
procedures.  Different kinds of external devices and pseudo-devices, such- as the
user's terminal, the line printer, the File system, and so on, are represented as
different predefined values of mode channel. A better and more complete description
of the available channels can be found in Chapter 5; here we will just present a list
of the currently available channels:

stand out channel	standard output line printer
stand in channel	standard input terminal
cons out channel	console output (terminal)
cons in channel		console input (terminal)
var page channel	PAGE object channel TECO format
fixed page channel	PAGE object channel unformatted
sos file channel	transput to files of SOS subfile type


	All transput is done by a set of predefined routines, each of which requires as
its first parameter a value of mode ref file. A value of mode file corresponds to what
is usually called a "file control block"; it is a tangible record that the program has
initialized transput to some external file or device, and a record of the progress of
that transput.

Initialization of a file is done by means of the routines open and establish:


file f, g;
establish (f, "newfile", sos file channel, max int, 50, 80);

#
creates a new file, with an entry ifly your directory called
nevifile", and initializes it for transput. It may have an
unlimited number of pages (mar int is defined in the standard
prelude as the largest integer that can be used in a program),
with up to 50 lines per page, and up to 80 characters per line.
#


	open (g, "oldfile", sos file channel);

#
looks for an entry in your directory called "oldfile", and
if it is a proper SOS file, initializes it for transput.
#


Both of these routines return values of mode int; if either one fails for some reason or
other, it returns a non-zero value indicating why it failed.

	Two predefined values of mode ref file are initialized before your program is
started'. stand out is opened on stand out channel, and stand in is opened on stand in
channel. We will run into these two again soon.

	Ordinary output is done by means of the routines put and print:


#	Output of a single value to a file #

put (file,3);
put (file,16r70f0);
put (file,newline);

# comes out as TTTFFFFTTTTFFFF #


#
(The value may be any of the modes int, real, compl,
bool, bits, char, string, bytes, or (as in the case of newline,
proc (ref file) void).
#

#	Output of a multiple value #

[]int r2  ((2, 3), (4, 5));
...
put (file,r2);	# comes out as	+2	+3	+4	+5 #

#	Output of a list of things #

put (file, (a, b and c, r2, "gorp baz", newline));

# The standard output file #

print (xxx)
	equivalent to
put (stand out, xxx)



Input is done by means of get and read. In general, input looks a lot like output:


# Input of a single value #

int i; get (file, i);
string s; get (file, s);	#	Read and ignore the rest of the current line #
get (file, newline);


#	Input of multiple values, lists of values #

[1:n]real x; get (file, x);
get (file, (foo, bar, mung, gorp, x[3:n]));

read (xrx)
equivalent to
get (stand in, xxx)


	Three values of mode proc (ref file) void are defined in the Standard Prelude:
space, newline, and newpage; these routines have the effects that their names suggest.

	At any time during transput to a file, you can find out your distance in columns
from the left margin, your distance in lines from the top of the page, and your page
numberi the routines to do so are called "position enquiries".

char number (ref file)	position within a line
line number (ref file)	position within a page
page number (ref file)	position within the file

#	Example: standard tabbing #

proc tab = (ref file f) void:
put (f, (8 - char number (f) %* 8) * " ");

	print ((something, tab, something else, tab, etc))



	Ordinarily, if you try to do input at the end of a file, or output beyond the
physical limits of a file, your program run is terminated (a fatal error is announced).
You can specify different actions to be taken at these and/or other interesting
junctures, by associating an "event routine" with the file. An event routine is a value
of mode proc (ref file) bool; when the event happens, the routine is called, and the ref
file value which was being used for transput is passed to it. There four predefined
procedures which can be used for associating event routines with files; these are:

on line end (file, event routine)	transput at end of line
on page end (file, event routine)	transput at end of page
on logical file end (file, event routine)	input at end of file
on physical file end (file, event routine)	output at end of file

For a more complete description of how event routines v'ork, and hew they should be
written, see some other text; for examples of their use, see section 3.6.6.

	If you would like to output numbers in some format different from the standard
format used by put, there are three routines available for conversion of numbers into
strings: whole, fixed, and float:

whole (number, int)	second argument is "width"

#	sample table of values of whole (num, width) '#





		width
		0	 3	-3	 4
	0	"0"	" +0"	"  0"	"  +0"
num	25	"25"	"+25"	" 25"	" +25"
	-25	"-25"	"-25"	"-25"	" -25"

fixed (number, int, int)	third argument is "after"

# Examples: #

fixed (3.1, 4, 1)		yields "43.1"
fixed (3.1, -4, 1)		yields "3.1"
fixed (3.1, 3,1)		yields " +3"
fixed (3.1, -3, 1)		yields "3.1"
fixed (3.1, 0, 1)		yields "3.1"
fixed (-3.1, 0,1)		yields "-3.1"

float (number, int, int, int)	fourth argument is "exp width"

#	Examples: #

float (3.1e1, 6,1, -1)		yields "+3.1e1"
float (3.1e1, -6, 1, -1)	yields " 3.lel"
float (3.1e1, 7, 1, 1)		yields "*3.1e+1"
float (3.1e12, 6,1, -1)		yields "*31e11"
float (3.1e12, 5,1, -1)		yields "+3e12"
float (3.lel, 6, 2, 0)		yields "+3.1e1"

	Finally, there are some miscellaneous transput routines, for doing various
interesting but miscellaneous transput things:


make term (ref file, string)
# designates a string full of break characters for input of string values #

assoctate (ref file, []char)	* NOT currently implemented #
# like open, but initializes "transput" with an array of characters #

put bin, get bin, write bin, raad bin
# binary [unformatted; packed] transput #

set	(ref file, int page, line, char)
# random access #

reset (ref file)
#	rewind - go back to beginning of file #

	close, scratch
#	terminate transput with a file. scratch aborts transput,
close terminates it normally. #

reidf (ref file, string)
#	rename the file #


chan (ref file)
# channel enquiry #


3.6.3	Operator definitions

	In Algol 68 you may define new operators. You can do this by adding new
meaning to the existing operators, such as + and abs; or you can define entirely new
operators. In the latter case, if the new operator is dyadic (requires two operands), it
is necessary to define its priority. Priority is the old notion which you know from
algebra, that exponontiation takes place before multiplication and division, and
multiplication and division take place before addition and subtraction. You must find a
place for your new operator on this scale; the existing operators all have priorities
on a scale from 1 to 9.  Operator declarations, whether for dyadic or monadic
operators, look a great deal like procedure declarations.


#	Extensions to already defined operators #

op - = (bits a, b) bits: a and not b;

op ^ =  (int a) real: 10.0 ^ a;

# Illegal: #

op - = (int a, b) anymode: anything;
	#	illegal to redefine an operator without extending it #
op + = (ref int a, b) anymode: anything;
	#	redefining it without extending it "enough" #

# Definitions of new operators #

prio xor = 4;
op xor  (bits a, b) bits: a and not b or b and not a;

op flip = (ref bool b) ref bool: b := not b;

#	More interesting operators and structures #

mode rational = struct (int gum, denom);

op gcd = (int a, b) int: e you can fill this one in #;

op * = (rational a, b) rational:
begin
int na = num of a, nb = num of b;
int da = denom of a, db = denom of b;
int i = na gcd db, j = nb gcd da;
((na % i) * (nb % j), (da % j) * (db % i))
end;



3.6.4	Serial Clauses

	If you have used Algol 60 or other languages based on it, you will recognize the
Algol 68 construct "closed-clause". This is a sequence of declarations and expressions
separated by semicolons, beginning with begin and ending with end. It is generalized
in some minor ways from analogous constructs in other languages: declarations may
appear after expressions in the sequence; the clause as a whole is an expression, and
itS- value and mode are the value and mode of the last item in the sequence, which
must be an expression; begin and end may be replaced by left and right parentheses.

	Closed-clauses, however, do not appear very often in Algol 68 programs. This
is - because the purpose served by begin and ond, namely to signal to the Algol 68
system where the clause begins and ends, may be served equally well by many other
 pairs of landmarks, e.g. if and then, or then and else, or else and fi, or do and od. Thus
the following expressions are legal (we will examine them in more detail in later
sections):


if a; b; c; d
then e; f; g; h
else i; j; k; l
fi

for i from a by b to c
while d; c; f; g
do h; i; j; k
od

The closed-clause is just a particular example of a "serial-clause", which is a sequence
of expressions and declarations separated by semicolons. A common mistake is to put
a semicolon after the last item in a serial-clause; see section 3.9.

	The rules governing the extent of declarations in Algol 68 are also slightly
different from the corresponding rules in Algol 60 and related languages. Of course, a
declaration in -any serial-clause takes effect over the whole serial-clause, though it
may be overridden by declarations in clauses nested within that one.  However, a
declaration in the clause between if and thon takes effect over the whole expression
from if to fi; and a declaration in the clause between while and do takes effect over
that clause and the clause betwe4n do and od. Examples of this rule and its usefulness
will be presented in the following sections.


3.6.5	Conditional Clauses

	In Algol 68, the if-then-else construct is a type of expressiori~ Its value is either
the value of the then-part or the value of the else-part, whichever is executed; its
mode is some compromise between their two modes, arrived at by "balancing" them.
We will not describe balancing here, but you should know the term.  The clause
between if and then is called an enquiry-clause, and it must of course be of mode bool.

	The whole expression must be terminated by the fi. olif may be used as an
abbreviation for else if, but it is more than just an abbreviation: whereas the if in else
if must be matched by a fi, the use of elif eliminates the need for one fi. (If this is
unclear, see the examples below.) The else-part of a conditional clause may be omitted,
in which case it is treated as if you had written else skip. skip is a special predefined
expression: it does nothing, and its value is undefined (and can be coerced to any
mode). It is useful in situations where the rules of the language force you to write an
expression, but your program has no need of any particular expression.

	if, then, else, elif, and fi may be replaced by (, |, |, |:, and ) respectively, in any
particular conditional clause, provided you replace all of them.


#	A simple conditional clause #

if a then b := c else d := e fi

#	Omitted else #

if a then b := c fi
equivalent to
if a then b := c else skip fi

# Use of elif #

i := j * if a
	then b + C
elif d
then e + f
else g + h
fi
	equivalent to
i := j * if a
then b + c
else if d
	then e + f
	else g + h
fi
fi

# Abbreviations #


b :=
(a | b := c | d := e)

(a | b := e)

(a
| b + c
|: d
+ e + f
| g + h)

# Serial clauses and declaration structure #

if
int i = f(a, b);
i /= 0
then
j := g (c, i)
else
real r = h (d, e);
k := p (i, r);
m := round r - 5
fi


3.6.6	Loop Clauses

	The keywords do and od always indicate a loop of some kind. In loops involving
the keyword while, e.g.


while a do b od


there is a cycle of action: first the enquiry-clause a is tested, and if its value is true,
the serial-clause b is executed; this happens over and over again until the value of a is
false, at which time the cycle just stops. The whole loop is an expression, but its value
is of mode void (see section 3.6.1), and is thus of no use to the programmer.

In loops involving the keywords for, from, by, and/or to, e.g.

for counter from a by b to c do d od

the cycle is different. This expression implicitly declares an int value called counter;
this declaration is in effect over the serial-clause d, though it may be overridden by
declarations within that clause. cocinter is a different int value every time through the
cycle: the first time it is equal to a, the second time it is a + b, the third time a + b + b,
and so forth. The loop stops if, in the coming cycle, counter would exceed its limit. If
b is positive this means that counter is not allowed to be greater than c, if b is
negative, cotntcr is not allowed to be less than 4. As with while loops, this may mean
that d is never executed. Note that a, b, and c are calculated once and only once, at
the beginning of the whole loop; they are not affected by later assignations, which may
take place during the loop, to variables which were involved in calculating them.

	The for part could have been omitted, if counter were not mentioned at any time
within d. The from part could be omitted, in which case it is treated as if it were equal
to 3. The same goes for the by part. If the to part is omitted, there is no limit on the
execution of the cycle. A single loop can use both a counter (e.g. with for et al.) and a
while part; in this case both conditions are checked to determine whether the cycle is
to continue.

	In case the above discussion has not sufficiently confused you, here are some
examples of loops:


#	An infinite loop #

do
sunrise;
day;
sunset;
night
od

#	A simple loop #

to n do print (newline) od

# Use of for, from, by #

for i from 10 by -3 to -35
do f(i)od

#	Use of while #

for i to 100 while f(i) <0
do g (i) od

# Interacting with a user at a terminal #

while
string s;
reed ((s, newline));
	s /= ""	# the empty string #
do
file f;
if
int i = open (f, s, some channel);
i = 0
then
process (f);
close (f)
else
report error (i)
fi
od

#
Converting an integer to a string in some arbitrary base.
	The string must contain at least one digit, even if the
number is zero. The base must be from 2 to 10.
#
string string := "";
char sign = (number < 0
| number := -number;
"-"
| "+" );

while
char digit = "0123456789" [number %* base + 1];
number %:= base;
digit +=: string;
number /= 0
do
skip
od;
sign +=: string




3.6.7	Case Clauses [Switches; Computed Gotos)

	It is hard to understand the effect of a case-clause unless you have actually
been near one:

case i in
# 1 # f(r),
# 2 # g(s),
# 3 # skip,
# 4 # h :=  j + k
out x
esac


	The enquiry-clause i is evaluated. It must be of mode int. If its value is less
than 1 or greater than 4, then the serial-clause x is evaluated. If the value of i is in
that range, however, one of the four following expressions, which we have used
comments to label approprialely, is evaluated. For instance, if the value of i is 2, g(s)
is evaluated. In any case, the value of the case-clause is the value of whichever of
the alternatives is evaluated.

	A peculiar construct, ouse, plays a role similar to elif: if the value of i does not
lie within some range, you can use it to select in some other range, or even use some
other enquiry-clause, if you are so inclined.


#	A simple case-clause #

case
a;
b
in
	# 1 # c,
	# 2 # d,
	# 3 # e,
	# 4 # f
out
g;
h
esac

#	Use of ouse #

case a in b, c, d
ouse a - 100 in e, f, g
euse a - 200 in h, i, j, k, m
out n; o esac

#	Omitted out #

case a in b, c, d esac
equivalent to
Case a in b, c, d out skip esac

# Abbreviations #

print ((name of who, " is ",
	(number of forks of who | "hungry.", "eating."
		| "thinking."),	newline))




3.6.8	Miscellaneous control structures

	In this category are included gotos, labels, and completers. You may affix a label
to any expression in a serial-clause, provided it is after all the declarations in that
clause; then a geto which addresses that label may occur anywhere within the clause
or in procedures declared within the clause, and it causes the evaluation of the
expression of which it is a part to be immediately dropped; the system starts executing
the labeled expression in the serial-clause as if it had gotten there normally.  An
enquiry-clause may not contain a label.  Labels and gotos, owing to their highly
general, all-purpose nature, are rather clumsy to use; but in some situations they are
the standard method of choice, as in this example:


#	Use of a goto to handle end-of-file #

#	This program copies one file to another, line by line #

file input file, output file;
string s;
open (input file, input name, input channel);
open (output file, output name, output channel);
on logical file end (input file,
	(ref file) bool: go to end of file);
on page end (input file,
	(ref file) bool: (put (output file, newpage);
false));
do
get (input file, (5, newline));
put (output file, (s, newline))
od;
end of file:	#	this is a label #
close (input file);
close (output file);




	Completers may remind you of control constructs that you have seen in other
languages, but they aren't like anything else, anywhere, really. Any expression (but
the last) in a serial-clause may be separated from the next expression or declaration
by exit, instead of the usual semicolon. This causes that expression, if and when it is
executed, to bring the serial-clause to an end, and to be the value of the serial-clause.
This feature can only be used in conjunction with gotos and labels; for instance, if the
expression after exit is not labeled, it can never be executed (in fact this is an error,
and is caught by the Algol 68 compiler as such). We do not claim that the following
example of the use of a completer represents good programming practice, but it is
plausible and will serve the purpose:


#
This program fragment reads an array, and takes the average value
of its elements. All the elements must be positive; when a negative
number is read, it is taken to be the end of the array. A row of
real numbers is appointed to hold the array; and if the entire row is
read without encountering a negatyp element, it is reported that there
were too many elements to handle
#
[1:100]real x1;
real s := 0;
begin
read (x1);
for i to upb x1
do if x1 [i] > 0
then s +:=-x1 [i]; j := i
	else goto nonpos
fi od;

print ("Too much input") exit
nonpos: print (s);
average := s / j
end


3.7.
Parallel Processing

	The CMU Algol 68 system allows you to specify that your program is to be run
on more than one HYDRA process; see section 4.2.4. In order to take advantage of
this, you must be able to write your program in such a way that more than one
Process will find something to do.  There are essentially two features to use:
parallel-clauses, and eventual values. We will describe these in the next two sections.


3.7.1	Parallel Clauses and Semaphores

	A parallel-clause is a sequence of expressions, separated by commas, beginning
with par begin and ending with end. (You can use parentheses instead of begin and
end). The expressions are evaluated "in parallel", and when they have all completed,
the parallel-clause itself is complete; its value is of mode void, and is of no
consequence.

	What does it mean that the expressions are evaluated "in parallel"? Well, if you
have requested at least one HYDRA process for each expression, and if HYDRA-PM1
can find at least one PDP-11 processor for each process, the expressions may just be
evaluated all at the same time. If not, at any rate they may be evaluated in any order,
and may interrupt each other at random; so you won't be able to tell, in any sure way,
whether or not they were actually evaluated at the same time.

	Suppose two (or more) of the expressions read and write the same variable, or
meddle with the same large data structure?  How can you insure that the data
structure is always self-consistent; that the several processes do not confuse each
other by getting into improperly tangled sequences of assignations and dereferencings
of the variable? The usual and best method of preventing problems of this sort is by
the use of "semaphores".  For a real discussion of this problem, which is called
"synchronization", you should read something less hasty than this tutorial. A summary
of the simplest and most usual use of semaphores is as follows: for each variable, or
data structure, or group of variables, etc., that must be internally consistent, appoint a
semaphore--a value of mode sema. Initialize this sema to level 1; the "1" indicates that
only one process is to touch the data grouping at a time. Suppose the sema value is
called mysema; then any process, before touching the data, is to execute:


down mysema	# down is a predefined operator *#

and when it is finished messing with the data, it should release its grip thereon, by
doing:


up mysema



	Here is a classic if somewhat trivial example of the use of parallel-clauses and
semaphores as described above:


sema mouth = level 1;
par
begin
do
	down mouth;
eat;
up mouth
od,
do
	down mouth;
speak;
up mouth
ed
end



Watch this space--conditional semaphores will some day be implemented.

3.7.2	Eventual Values

	Parallel-clauses have several disadvantages. First, the fork and join points must
be nested not only with respect to other parallel-clauses, but also with respect to the
routine and range structure of the program. This can be undesirable if an activity to
be started in parallel does not interact with the further elaboration of other activities.
A particular irritation is that it is not possible to start an activity within a routine and
have it complete after the routine. Second, since the piece of program which may be
initiated in parallel is a void unit, a parallel activity may not return a value except
through the use of global variables. The possibility for programmer error is increased
because other parallel activities may access these variables.  Alternatively, the
programmer may decide to use parallelism only for subprograms which return no
values.  This has the unfortunate consequence of reducing the amount of parallel
processing. Finally, synchronization within the parallel-clause scheme is accomplished
by scattering up and down operations throughout the program. This decentralization of
control can be as difficult for programmers to deal with as the unrestricted use of the
goto.

	The idea behind eventual values may be seen by considering the following piece
of program:


real x, y;
x := sin (3.2);
unit1 .... ; unitn;
y := x + 1.0


When more than one processor is available it would make sense to allow sin (3.2) to be
computed in parallel with the elaboration of the first assignation and the units Unit1,
..., UnitN. In this case the value assigned to x can not be the desired real value since
it is not necessarily available at the time of the assignation. The value assigned is one
which will eventually (when the call completes) be a real value. We call this kind of
value an eventual real value. When the second assignation is reached it is necessary
to produce a real value from the eventual real value; that is, the program must wait for
the call of sin to complete. These ideas are incorporated into the language by formally
defining an eventual value to be a new object, and by introducing two new coercion
actions, deeventing and eventing.

	The mode of an eventual value is event amode, where amode is any mode. An
event amode value is composed of a status, which is either complete or incomplete, and
an amode value.

	An event amode value may be "deevented" to an amode value much as a proc
amode value may be deprocedured to an amode value. In fact, deeventing may occur in
the same syntactic positions as deproceduring. Deeventing is used to wait for the
amode value to be computed.  Specifically, if an event amode value has a status of
complete, then its amode value is yielded by deeventing. If the status is incomplete,
deeventing causes the current activity to be halted until the status changes to
complete. Then the activity is resumed and the amode value is yielded.

	An amode value may be "evented" to an event amode value. This coercion may
occur in firm and strong syntactic positions. if the construct to be evented is a call or
formula which returns an amode value then the routine is invoked as a parallel activity
and the yield of eventing is an event amode value with incomplete status. For other
constructs the yield is an event amode value which is complete and has the amode
value associated with it.

The previous example may be written as follows:

event real x; real y;
x := sin (3.2);
unit1 ; ... ; unitn;
y := x + 1.0


The mode of x is ref event real. The call of sin occurs in a strong event real context.
The mode of sin is proc (real) real, so it is evented by initiating a parallel activity and
yielding an incomplete event real which is assigned to x. When x is used as a real
operand it is dereferenced and deevented. The deeventing waits, if necessary, for the
parallel activity to complete and return the real value which is needed.

	Another useful application of eventual values is to start the parallel elaboration
of an independent action. For example,


mode task  event void;
...
task (print ((a, b, c)));
...


The cast puts the call to print in a strong event void context, so the call is made in
parallel.  The program never waits for the completion because no deeventing ever
occurs. Remember, the cast is a comorf and is voided directly. If it were necessary to
wait for the completion, the following could be written:


task x;
x := print ((a, b, c));

x; co wait co


The applied identifier, x, is not voided directly, so deeventing occurs and causes a
wait.

	By now the reader can understand and appreciate the beauty oF this final
example:


op + = (event [,] real a,b) [,] real: ... co usual matrix add co;
op * = (event [,] real a,b) [,] real: ... co usual matrix multiply co;
[1:10,1:10] real a, b, c, d, x;

x	:= a*b + c*d

3.3.  Instrumentation & Debugging Aids



3.3.1	On Error

on error - code(proc(int,int,bits)bool)void

Example:


on error ((int modno, lineno, bits errno) bool:
if errno shr 6 = bin 3
#
3 means a division-by-zero error. For a
table of error message numbers, see the
attached pages.
#
then write bin (some file,
(modno, lineno, errno));
try to restart
else false
fi)


	On error allows you to designate an "error recovery routine". When a run-time
error is detected, the system checks to see if you have an error recovery routine, and
if so, calls it. The routine must be of mode proc(int,int,bits)bool. The three parameters
are, in order:


(1)	A module number. These aren't very meaningful at present, but eventually a
procedure will become available which converts such a number into a
meaningful string, which will tell you something about which module
(collection of procedures, modes, etc.) was executing when the error
occurred.

(2)	A line number. This refers to the source listing produced by the compiler,
and indicates (usually accurately) which code was executing when the error
occurred.

(3)	An error number. This is an indicator of exactly which error was detected.
This bit pattern is derived from two other patterns:

(a) An indicator of a general class of errors; we'll call this c.

(to) An indicator of which error within the class occurred; we'll call this d.

The error number is equal to (c shl 6) or d. Of course, the number can be
converted to an int value, and the separate patterns can be obtained by
appropriate use of the (integer) division and modulo operators, if that is
more convenient than the use of the bits operators for any reason. A table
of possible values of c and d, and their meanings, is attached.

	If the error recovery routine returns true, the current activity is killed; this is
further explained in the documentation of parallel processing features, but in general it
means that the program quietly comes to a stop.  If the routine returns false, the
standard error message sequence is printed at the user's terminal, and then the
current activity is killed.  Thus the default option, which is that there is no error
recovery routine, is equivalent to designating a routine which does nothing but returns
false.

	on error (skip) may be used to specify that there is no error recovery routine,
i.e. to restore the default situation. Note that the error recovery situation follows the
range structure of the program: no matter how many calls of on error occur during the
elaboration of a range, the error recovery routine at exit from the range is restored to
what it was at entry.



3.8.2	On Tick

on tick - code(proc(int,int)void)void

Example:


on tick ((int modno, lineno) void:
linechart [lineno] +:= 1)


	on tick allows you to designate a "line number change routine". At any time
during the execution of a program, there is a record in the system of what source
code is being executed. This record consists of two numbers, a "module number" and a
"line number", as explained under on error, above. These are updated at the following
points:

(1)	when a semicolon is passed
(2)	when a routine-text is entered
(3)	when a label is jumped to
(4)	when a do-part is entered

	If a line number change routine has been designated, it is called after this
updating is done; the module number and line number are passed to it as parameters.
on tick (skip) may be used to specify that no routine is to be called (this is the
default); also, the line number change situation, like the error recovery situation
described above, follows the range structure of the program.


3.8.3	Warning level

warning level - code(int)void

Example:


warning level (2)


	Some run-time errors are not always severe ereugh to justify bringing the
program run to a stop.  A cardinal example of this kind of error is floatine, point
underfiow, in which the result of some floating p6int coteputation is so close to zero
that the difference cannot be represented in the computer's standard floating point
format.  In some situations, setting the result to zero might be a perfectly adequate
way to continue. In other situations, the programmer might want this to be done, but
might also want to be notified that it was done; in yet other situations, it might be best
to bring the program to a stop, as with an unrecoverable error.

	The CMU Algol68 system can treat such non-severe errors, called "warnings" in
any of four different ways, depend;ng on the setting of an internal flag:

0	- silently take the standard recovery action

1 -	while recovering, print "WARNING  nnnnn" on the user's terminal,
where nnnnn is an error number (see the discussion of error numbers,
above).

2 -	while recovering, print an entire standard error message, as if a
severe error had occurred, except with "WARNING nnnnn" substituted
for "ERROR nnnnn"

3 - treat the warning exactly as if it had been a severe error.

	Warning level takes an integer argument, and uses it to set the internal flag.
Values less than 0 are treated as 0; values greater than 3 are treated as 3. The
default setting of the flag is 2.



3.8.4	Systrace

systrace - code(int,bits)void

Example:

systrace (2, 8r10)

	systrace is intended for use primarily by the implementors, or other persons
wishing to explore the run-time system who have some knowledge of its internal
structure. However, a few of its features are of interest to general users:

systrace (2, n)

sets the "debug flags" to n; the following bits are of interest:

octal value meaning

20	record line number changes at user's terminal
40	record routine entry & exit at user's terminal
1000	record scheduling actions at user's terminal


A more detailed description will be given in the future.



3.8.5	Process time clock

proctime - newpile
start proc time - code void
get proc time - code(ref proctime)void
musecs - code(proctime)real

Example:


ref proctime p = loc proctime;
start proc time;
grunge; grunge; grunge;
get proctime (p);
print (("Time taken was", musecs (p); " microseconds", newline));



	This mode and set of operations make available to the Algol 68 programmer the
most accurate external  clock usable under HYDRA,  the $Processtime clock.  As
described in the HYDRA reference manual, this records the time spent by the current
process executing; its reselution is 16 microseconds, and at this writing it is not turned
off when the processor on which the process is running is interrupted.

	Readings of this clock are meaningful only relative to each other. Therefore, our
system creates a "virtual clock", which creates proctime values by subtracting
$Processtime readings from one another, and returns them to the program. The basic
primitive operation on the virtual clock, get proc time, is to stop it, read its value, reset
it to zero, and start it. One may optionally not bother to read its value (start proc
time). These are implemented by a system which keeps one global internal "variable":
the result of the last call on $Processtime.  get proc time causes two calls on
$Processtime: the first one is done at the very beginning of the operation, and the
second one at the very end. The difference between the result of the first call and
the value of the "global variable" is assigned to the ref proctime argument; the result
of the second call is left in the "global variable".
	The reason for having two calls on $Processtime per primitive operation, rather
than just one, has to do with the accuracy of the values returned by the virtual clock.
Before assigning a proctime value, the system subtracts a small amount from it, to
correct for the overheads involved in invoking the HYDRA Kernel, invoking the
operation itself, and other miscellaneous things. It is desirable to keep this correction
as nearly constant as possible.  Getting storage for a new proctime value, and
assigning it to a ref proctime value, both involve calls on the dynamic storage allocator
and deallocator, and should therefore be excluded as major causes of unpredictability
in the calculation of overhead costs. Hence they are performed in the untimed interval
betyteen the two calls on $Processtime.

	There is another source of unpredictability in the cost of invoking the basic
operation, which we cannot squeeze out, but which the user can control by the
scrupulous application of certain programming conventions in the use of the Process
time operations. This is the time required to get a "total reference" to pass to get
proc time as its argument; under certain conditions this also involves invoking the
dynamic storage allocator

	What this means to the user is this: that for best results, the ref proctime
argument to a call on get proc tinme must have been one that was explicitly declared
(not, for instance, one that was sliced from a ref []proctime array); and furthermore, for
the present anyway (this may be fixed in future versions of the system), it should
have been declared by an uncontracted form of declaration, e.g.


ref proctime p = loc proctime;

rather than by the more usual form:


proctime p;


	More detailed explanations of the reasons for these restrictions are available
from the implementors. For now, take them on faith.

	The routine musecs serves to convert proctime values into a more easily
manipulable form, i.e. into real values. In the future, if and when operations on long int
values are implemented, a version of this function will be provided which converts to
long int rather than to real. Also, routines which do arithmetic directly on proctime
values may be implemented.


3.9.	Dealing with the Compiler's Error Messages

	This section is intended to be a guide to interpreting the sometimes mystifying
error messages or sequences of error messages which the compiler types at your
terminal when it detects something wrong with your program. The need for such a
section is a reflection of a rather sad situation: the messages themselves are not
always understandable to the novice user; they are sometimes too vague and
sometimes so specific as to be misleading; sometimes all messages after the first one
are spurious; and sometimes many errors after the first one are just overlooked. This
state of affairs is about average for compilers of typical high-level languages; in
general implementors have their hands full dealing with correct programs, and
consequently neglect the treatment of incorrect programs.

	First, learn the format of the error messages, and how to read what the compiler
is trying to tell you. See section 4.2.5. Bear in mind that the "position indicator" digit
showing what the compiler was reading when it discovered your error is late: it almost
always occurs one or two words after the point where the error is.

	Now, let's examine the symptoms of some typical mistakes, so you can learn to
recognize them.

1.	"Syntax error" This is the compiler's catch-all message: when it can't figure out
what you did wrong, it prints this. It usually means that you have an extra
semicolon: you put a semicolon after the last expression in a serial-clause. It may
mean something else, but it Very seldom does.

2.	"Applied identifier has no defining occurrence in current nest". This is Algol 68
jargon that says the compiler has encountered an undeclared identifier. You may
have misspelled an identifier, or you may have simply forgotten to declare it. Or,
you may have typed a keyword as if it were an identifier; for instance, in "upper"
convention you forgot and typed "real" in lower case letters.

3.	"Problem in serial-clause". The position indicator for this error usually occurs
near an end; it indicates that you have forgotten an od (in a loop) or a fi (in a
conditional-clause) somewhere earlier in the program.

4.	"Missing stick". Yes, "Missing stick". A stick is the abbreviation for then and else,
that is, "|". This error message usually indicates that you have forgotten a right
parenthesis; the cause of the message is that the compiler expected the left
parenthesis to be the beginning of a conditional clause.

5.	Real havoc. If you forget the closing delimiter which marks the end of a comment,
the compiler mistakes comment text for program text and vice versa, with wild
and sometimes hilarious results.

	By and large, if you make note of the frequent cases described above, and if
you pay attention to the position indicators and the error messages, and apply only a
modest amount of ingenuity, you should be able to figure out what your error
messages indicate and what to do about them, without much trouble.

4.	C.mmp Algol 68 System

4.1.	Overview

	The initial Algol 68 system on C.mmp accepts a PAGE, UNIVERSAL of PAGEs, or
SUPER FILE as input, compiles this source text and invokes the run-time system which
executes the program.  Eventually this compile-and-go system will give way to a
compile-link-and-go system which supports separate compilation and program libraries.


4.2.	Using the System

	The Policy Module 0/Hydra/C.mmp system has much in common with the "Turing
Tarpit" where everything is possible and nothing is easy. The terminal user interface,
called the Command Interpreter (CI), allows each user to tailor the interface to conform
to the particular user's deep-sealed beliefs and light-hearted whims concerning
terminal interlacing.  Some important features which support this flexibility are the
macro and procedure (called COMMAND object) definition facilities of the command
language, a general directed-graph directory structure, automatic invocation of a user
profile (a designated COMMAND) at login time, and, in general, the ability to do
anything in any of hundreds of ways.

	In order to spare Algol users some of the pain normally encountered when
setting out to use Hydra, a set of COMMANDs and macros, as well as a simple profile
have been developed.  The following subsection describes how to get started on
C.mmp using these aids. The next subsection is aimed at the experienced Hydra user
and  describes, in Hydra-ese, the primitives available to anyone operating in
I-roll-my-own mode.


4.2.1	How to do It (for beginning Hydra users)

Obtaining an account. If you do not have an account on Hydra, a request for one should
be made to the operations staff. This normally means sending mail to GRIPE on one of
the PDP-10's.

Logging in. After giving the front-end the command to connect your terminal to C.mmp,
one of four things may happen. One, you may be told the host is down. Try again
later.  Two, some introductory messages may be typed, followed by the prompt
character "@". Good. You are communicating with the Job Monitor (JMON) and may
proceed (see below). Three, some message is typed, followed by the prompt character
">". Bad. You are probably communicating with someone else's terminal. Find another
terminal. Four, something else happens. You are on your own.

Assuming you have made it to the prompt, type: CL. Some chatter will appear on your
terminal and eventually it will get back to a new prompt, ">".  Now you are
communicating with the Cl; type: LOG(). The togin dialogue will be self-explanatory. If
your user catalogue contains a COMMAND in an entry with the name Profile, this
COMMAND is invoked as the final step of the login process

Creating a profile. PMO is nearly unusable without an appropriate user profile. If you
do  not  have  a  profile,  create  one  by  typing  the  following  supplication:
&sysdirectory.Public.Algol68.CMDs.GetProfile(). The resulting profile contains macros
which help implement the commands described in the remainder of this section.

Preparing, source input using SOS. A version of the SOS editor exists under PMO. The
PDP-10 SOS Manual serves as the user manual for the PMO editor. However, only a
subset of PDP-10 SOS is available. In particular, the Copy, Transfer, Find, Substitute
and Justify commands are not implemented.

A new file tray be created and edited using SOS by typing: Create(). You will be
prompted for a file name. Your reply should be a name of one to sixteen letters
and/or digits. (Other characters may be used, but some are rather dangerous.) SOS
starts in insert mode.

An old file may be edited using SOS by typing: Edit(). Your reply to the prompt for a
file should be the name given when you created the file or a null reply (i.e. carriage
return) in which case the file most recently edited or compiled will be used.

SOS may be used to examine a file in read-only mode by typing: Read().

Additional information about PMO SOS may be found in the file SOSC.DOC[A110LC00]
on the PDP-10A. This information is of little use to a beginner. Problems with and
complaints about the PMO editor should be sent via MAIL to A110LC00 on the PDP-10.

Preparing source input using TECO. A version of the TECO editor exists under PMO. It
is roughly a subset of its namesake on the PDP-10. A new file may be created and
edited using TECO by typing: Make(). The prompt for a file name should be answered
with a name consisting of one to sixteen letters and/or digits. An old file may be
edited by typing: Teco(). You will be prompted for a file name.  A null response
causes the last file edited or compiled to be used.

Specifying files and file names. If you have created any programs using SOS or TECO,
your catalogue now has an entry called Algol. This is itself a catalogue, and there is
an entry in it for every program you create. When you use one of the standard
commands, such as "Edit" or "Teco", and it prompts you for a file name, it looks up that
file name in your Algol catalogue. If you want to deal with a file that isn't in your
Algol catalogue, you can do that, too; the only requirement is that you specify
completely, using the conventions of the CI, how to access the file. For instance, if
your user catalogue has an entry called Test, and Test is a catalogue with an entry
called Prog which is your program, then when "Edit" or "Teco" or whatever prompts
you for a file name, you should type: Test.Prog. If your program isn't even on a
catalogue, but is in a "Capability variable" called &prog, then you should type: &prog.

You can bypass the prompt by passing the proper indication of your prpgram directly
to the command, as a parameter. For instance, you might type:
Edit(Algol.prog)
	! Equivalent to:
	! Edit()
	! Source file: prog
Edit(Test.prog)
	! Equivalent to:
	! Edit()
	! Source file: test.prog
Edit(&prog)
	! Equivalent to:
	! Edit()
	! Source file: &prog

Notice that these commands "remember" what the last file you edited, ran, etc. was.
That is, if you respond to the prompt by not typing anything but carriage return, it is
as if you typed the name of the last file you edited or ran. The commands do this by
maintaining a "Capability variable" called &currentfile. At any given time, this variable
is set to the file currently in use, or the last file that was in use. Ordinarily you don't
need to know this, but for the curious, that's how it's done.

Every catalogue entry (indeed every object in the Hydra system) has a type. Files
created by SOS (Create()) are of type SUPERFILE; files created by TECO (Make()) are
of type UNIVERSAL You'll notice that the type of each file is printed out when you
get a catalogue listing (see below) of all your files. SUPERFILES cannot be edited with
TECO, and UNIVERSALs cannot be edited with SOS, in case you were wondering.

Compiling and executing a program. First, type: Alg68(). The following prompt will be
typed:

Source Input:

The response should be the name of the file to be compiled and executed. The dialog
continues with the prompt

Listing Device:

This is the first of several "option prompts" which are part of the standard dialog. For
each option prompt, there is a set of possible replies, and if you forget any of these,
you can have the system type out the whole set, by replying with "?". Any reply may
be abbreviated to only its first few characters, enough to distinguish it from all other
replies in the set. A reply must be followed by a carriage return.

Currently there is only one possible reply to the 'Listing Device' option prompt. This
is "TTY", indicating that a compilation listing is to be typed at the user's terminal. A
null reply (i.e. a bare carriage return) indicates that the listing is to be suppressed. In
the future; more replies (e.g. "LPT") will be available.

Next, there is another option prompt:

Compiler Option:

This prompt is repeated after each reply, until the user types a null reply (carriage
return). A list of the available replies may be found in Section 4.2.3. After the null
reply to this prompt, the compilation begins.


When the compilation is complete, a message starting the program's code and data sizes
(in number of words) is typed on the terminal. If no compilation errors occurred, the
run-time systdm is called. First, however, there is another option prompt:


Runtime Option:

Like the previous option prompt, this one is repeated after each reply, until the user
types a null reply. A tist of the available replid~ may be found in Section 4.2.4.  One
of the replies is special: 'STANDOUT. This brings on the 'Standout Option' option
prompt, by which means the user specifies what is to be the nature of the
standoutchannel, the channel on which the standard output file is opened.  The
available replies are:

LIST	It is a file of the LPT subfile type, which is listed as soon as it is closed.
TYPE	It is the same as Consoutchannel, the channel for output to the user's terminal.
SAVE	It is a file of the SOS subfile typo. More about this later; this is the default.
DELETE	Not implemented yet.

The run-time system then greets the user with some reassuring message and
commences program execution.  After the program finishes, another reassuring
message appears at the terminal indicating that execution is complete. If the user has
earlier specified the 'SAVE' Standout option (or has not specified an option--this is the
default), the accumulated output from the program using standoutchannel is now
available as a file of the SOS subfile type, and the system gives the 'Final Standout
Option' option prompt. You may specify that the file be typed on your terminal, listed
on the line printer, saved in your user catalogue under the name 'Standout', or thrown
away (it is biodegradable).

If you run a program more than once without editing it, you can shorten the
compilation-execution sequence considerably, by avoiding more than one compilation.
To do this, first type: Com68(). You should do this whenever you have done some
editing and are ready to try out the program again. This runs the Compiler, which
produces an Object Program from your program. If you have a subcatalogue called
Object on your user catalogue, the Object Program will be put there; otherwise a new
subcatalogue called Object will be created.  To actually run this program, type:
Run68().

Terminating Algol 68. If your program gets into an infinite loop, or some other mishap
befalls it, press the BREAK key (Control-K). Ordinarily, this will cause the program to
be interrupted and forcibly stopped. You can also interrupt the compiler this way, if
you want to.

Listing a file. Type: List(). You will be prompted for a file name, and for a print name,
which is the name that gets printed on the banner page of the listing.

Printing a file. Type; Print(), You will be prompted for a file name. The contents of the
file will appear as if by magic at your terminal.

Printing a catalogue. To see your user catalogue, type: Di().  To see some other
catalogue, such as Algol, type: Di(Algol).

Deleting a file. If your program is called "prog". type: del(algol.prog).

Logging out. First, type KJOB to the CI. After it calms down, you should be talking to
JMON again. (You may have to type another carriage return to get the "@" prompt.)
Right now, it is necessary to type KJOB to JMON as well. (In the future, that won't be
necessary.) There, you've used the system. That wasn't so bad, now was it?


4.2.2 How to Do It (for battered Hydra users)

	For more detailed information on how to use the facilities described in the
preceding seetion, the advanced Hydra user can explore the contents of the
Public.Algol68 catalogue; in particular, Public.Algol68.CMDs which contains the various
COMMAND objects.


4.2.3 Compilation Switches

	Some of the compilation options listed below are not of interest to users; these
are  marked with an asterisk.  Of the others, currently all  are  available  as
pragmat-items as well. For instance, if your program contains the pragmat

:: lower ::

the remainder of the program (at least up to the next pragmat) vill be assumed to use
the "lower" stropping convention.

DEBUG		Enable compiler debugging mode of operation.
GHOST*		Mumbo jumbo.
LISTING		Produce compiler source listing output
LOWER		Use lower stropping convention.
NAKED:		Hocus pocus filiocus.
NODEBUG:	Disable compiler debugging mode of operation.
NOUHOST:	Disable mumbo jumbo.
NOLISTING	Suppress compiler source listing output
NONAKED:	Disable hocus pocus filiocus.
NOWARNINGS	Do not output warning messages.
POINT		Use point stropping convention.
RES		Use reserved word stropping convention.
UPPER		Use upper stropping convention.
WARNINGS	Output warning messages.

4.2.4	Execution Switches

PDP-11 processors, but of  HYDRA processes; and that at any
time the user's program may make use of fewer processes
than the specified number, or it may be written as if it could
make use of more; in either case it should still run and produce
correct results
Consult the implementors before using this switch.
See the explanation in Section 4.2.2.
DEBUG	Enable run-time system debugging mode of operation. This is
	of some limited usefulness to users. The user is prompted for
	a set of 'Flags', that is, a number; this number is treated as if it
	had been passed as the second argument to a call on Systrace
	(see document alien elsewhere) in the program.
PROCESSES	The user's program is to be run on more than one process.
	The user is prompted for a number of processes, which may
	be from 1 to 16. Note that this is not a number of physical
	PDP-11 processors, but of  HYDRA processes; and that at any
	time the user's program may make use of fewer processes
	than the specified number, or it may be written as if it could
	make use of more; in either case it should still run and produce
	correct results
SPEEDUP	Consult the implementors before using this switch.
STANDOUT	See the explanation in Section 4.2.2.


4.2.5	Error Reporting

	A compilation error is indicated by the printing of a vague message, the line
6ontaining the error, and a line containing a position indicator beneath the first
character of the most recently seen input lexeme at the time of the error. A position
indicator is simply a digit printed in the appropriate position. if more then one error
occurs in a given line, the error messages first to last, are associated with the position
indicators, left to right, respecting the following rule. If many errors occur at the same
position, the digit printed indicates the number of errors which occurred there.

	Syntax errors will normally cause some portion of the input to be ignored. For
the most part, any ignored characters are printed on the listing with equal signs
beneath them.

	No semantic processing of the program is done after the first compilation error
occurs. Naturally, the run-time system is not called if an error is found.

	There are also abnormal situations which are not quite as severe as errors.
These cause a warning message to be printed in the same format as an error message
except the fact that it is a warning is noted. Warnings do not cause semantic
processing to stop.

	Run-time errors are normally indicated by the printing of an accurate statement
of what the problem is. This is accompanied by an indication of the source program
line which was being executed when the error occurred.

4.3.	Temporary Restrictions



4.3.1	Things You Care About

	- Soft balancing of identity-relations is not implemented.

	- Transput of structured, long int, long real, and long comp values is
not implemented.

	- Some operators are not implemented (See 2.4.1).  In particular no
operators which involve any of the modes long int, long real, or long
compl are implemented.

	- Some standard and particular prelude identifiers are not implemented
(See 2.4.2).

	- Program code size is restricted to 4096 words. This should be able
to accomodate 200 to 300 source lines of program.


4.3.2	Things You Do Not Care About

	- Full and correct mode equivalence check is not implemented. Do not
be worried about this.  The mode equivalence algorithm is almost
totally correct. An appropriate prize will be awarded to the first
user discovering two equivalent modes which are not recognized as
such.

	- Determination	of	necessary  environ based  on  use   of
	applied-mode-indicant  as  actual-declarer is  not  implemented
	completely.


5.	Transput User's Guide

This guide consists of two parts:

1)	A description of the differences, hopefully minor for most users, between the
transput system implemented at CMU, and the system described by the Reports
on Algol 68 and Algol 68S.

2)	A description of each of the channels available in the CMU library-prelude.

	The reader should be familiar with the transput sections of the Revised Report
(approximately 10.3.1 to 10.3.3 and 10.4), except for formatted transput, which is not
implemented in the sublanguage.


5.1.	Differences from the sublanguage



5.1.1	Flip and Flop

	On input, either of two letters is accepted as FLIP; either of two other letters is
accepted as FLOP. See the section on Environment Enquiries.



5.1.2	Unknown logical file end

	On some (compressible) channels, the system makes decisions which have to rely
on incomplete information about the logical end of a file. For instance, when a file is
opened on the channel "var page channel", the system does not know where its logical
end is, although this may be found out during later transput to that file. Thus during
any particular transput operation the logical end of file may be "unknown", with the
following consequences:

(a)	during PUT CHAP and SPACE, the file is treated as if its logical end were at
the current position; for instance, SPACE calls PUT CHAR(f, BLANK), and the
logical file end is set to the next position on the current line.

(b)	during NEWLINE (NEWPAGE), the current line (page) is examined to determine
whether it contains the logical file end. This can be done on all available
channels, and although it may leave the actual position of logical file end still
unknown, the boolean value returned by this examination is enough to
determine an appropriate action for NEWLINE or NEWPAGE

5.1.3	Transput in parallel

	During a transput operation using a ref file 'RF' concurrent (parallel) activity
may cause RF to refer to a file different from the one which it referred to at the start
of the operation. This may not be reflected properly in the transput that actually gets
done. This is because the transput system dereferences RF only once, using the same
file value for the entire operation. Note however that another dereferencing is done
after each call on an event routine; this insures that programs which do not do
unsynchronized parallel activity involving assignations to ref files which are in use will
be elaborated exactly as described in the Report. As an example of the kind of
program which might have unusual results, consider:

BEGIN
#
The book on which we are about to do transput consists of
at least one line, which contains a sprinkling of special
characters, such  as "%"  and "/",  at strategic  points.
For instance, the contents of the book might be:

	abc%def/ghi%jkl
	etc.

Suppose we  read two strings from  the file.  Clearly the
effect  of this  will  depend  on which  of the  special
characters are  in the  termination string of the  file.
We'll use this as a demonstration.
#
FILE rfx,rf;
open (rf, "etaoinshrdlu", monongahela channel)
rfx    rf;
make term (rf, "%" );
make term (rfx, "/%");
STRING s1,
s2 := "INIT", s3; CHAR c;

PAR BEGIN
# P1 #
(rf := rfx; s3 := s2),
# P1 #

# P2 #
	read (rf, (s1, c, s2))
# P2 #
END;
# P3 - examine s2 and s3 #
END

At P3, s3 might be "INIT", indicating that when P1 was executed, s2 had not yet been
read. We would expect, therefore, that the second string would not contain the special
character "/", since that character is now part of the termination string of rf.
However, this would not be the case. During all of P2, the file initially referred to by
rf is locked in place, and the assignment of rfx to rf does not take effect until some
event routine is called or the input is ended. This effect may be heightened during
use of the default event routine (called "false" in the Revised Report); this is not
treated as a normal event routine, for reasons of efficiency, and an assignment which
is waiting to take effect when this routine is "called" is still waiting when transput is
resumed.


5.1.4	Rounding in Float

	In certain pathological cases the routine FLOAT returns a string different from
the one specified by the Report. This is deliberate and will be changed if the decision
turns out to have been wrong. Consider:


float(99.7e3, 5, 0, -1)

The only representation of the given number which exactly meets the specifications of
the given "width", "after", and "exp" parameters is


"+99e9"

The routine FLOAT presented in the Report, however, rejects this representation
because it is not correctly rounded. It then tries representations with two digits of
exponent, arriving at


"+1e11"

This is in fact rounded correctly, but it has a disadvantage of its own: it reveals only
one digit of the number's mantissa, instead of revealing two digits, the second of which
is off by 1, as the first representation does. Our implementation chooses the first
representation in this and similar cases.



5.1.5	Checking for invalid parameters

	Establish, as described in the Report, checks the validity of the dimension
arguments passed to it (P, L, and C) by making a value of mode POS from them and
comparing it by means of the BEYOND operator to (1, 1, 1) and to the maximum
dimensions of the channel involved. Unfortunately this is not a very strict test for
validity, because of the nature of the BEYOND operator, which does not always look at
all three dimensions. For instance, on a channel whose maximum dimensions are

Pages per file - 10
Lines per page - 50
Characters per line - 100

	the following combinations of dimension arguments (P, L, C) would "pass" the
validity test, in spite of being completely unsuitable:

(5, 25 -200)
(5, 25, 200)
(5, -100,0)
(5,100, max int)

	Instead of using the BEYOND operator, the CMU implementation uses a different
operator, which we will call EXCEEDS;

PRIO EXCEEDS = 5;
OP EXCEEDS   (POS a, b) BOOL:
		p OF a	> p OF b
	OR	l OF a	> l OF b
	OR	c OF a	> c OF b;

5.1.6	Restriction on random access removed

	The procedure Set, as described in the Revised Report, first saves the
reacting/writing status of the file, in order to property restore it if the "logical file
mended" routine of the file must be called clue to an attempt to set the position
beyond the logical end of the file. Unfortunately this saving of the status is done as
follows:


BOOL reading =	(read mood OF f | TRUE |:
write mood OF f | FALSE |
| undefined; SKIP);

This has the effect of calling "Undefined", which is usually interpreted in the CMU
system as signalling a run-time error or warning message, if the file on which Set is
being done is not yet in read or write mood, e.g. the Set operation is the first transput
operation performed on a recently opened file. Since this operation is legitimate and
indeed frequent with random access files, we have changed Sot so that it is allowed;
the saving of the file's read/write status is done only if the saved status will be
needed, i.e. when the "logical file mended" routine is about to be called.



5.1.7	Checking of values input by Get Bin

	For several of the modes which can be input by binary transput, the internal
representation of values of that mode can also be used to represent "things" which are
not legal values of that mode. For instance, REAL values are represented as pairs of
PDP-11 words; but there are a great many possible pairs of PDP-11 words which do
not represent legal REAL values. Currently, the CMU implementation of Get Bin does
not do the (rather expensive) checking of input values necessary to weed out these
illegal non-representations. This has the unfortunate consequence that the undefined
value checking of the CMU run-time system can be circumvented, either accidentally or
deliberately, by misapplication of Get Bin. This will be fixed if it develops into a
severe problem.

5.2.	Channels: general information

	The routines Reset of C, Set of C, etc. associated with every channel C always
return the same value. Part of the description of each channel is a list of the values
returned by each of these routines

Stand back channel is not yet implemented.

	On some channels, Newline and Newpage are represented, at a level which is
transparent to the Algol68 program, by special characters (e.g. form feed).  If the
program explicitly outputs these characters as characters (for instance,

print(REPR(12))  ),

they will not be recognized as special characters; on input, however, they are always
recognized.

	On some channels, not all of the fields of the POS value returned by Max Pos are
intended to be finite. For instance, the number of lines per page that may be written
to a file opened on Cons Out Channel should be infinite. In practice it is equal to Max
Int.

	An attempt has been made to achieve some uniformity among the non-zero error
codes returned by Establish and Open on the various channels.  Each error code
consists of two parts; a "general" part, and a "specific" part. Since an integer is not a
structured value, the division into parts is implemented by adding two integers, a
general and a specific one, to form a single error code. The specific code is multiplied
by 255 before adding it to the general code, so the original two codes can be
reconstructed from their combination by either INT or BITS operations.

	Each of the first few (6) general error codes can be associated in a loose way
with a particular validity test in the Algol68 description of Establish and Open. Any
other general error codes are dependent on the channels; all specific error codes are
to be dependent on the operating environment (i.e. their meanings are expected to be
different in different environments). Symbolic names and meanings of the first general
error codes are as follows:

(1) ERbadidf
	something is wrong with the STRING argument to Open or
	Establish. In Establish, Idf Ok returned FALSE; in Open, Match
	never returned TRUE.

(2) ERnowrite
	writing could not be done, though reading might have been
	possible.  In Establish, Put OF Chan returned FALSE (the
	channel is read-only, e.g. a paper tape reader); in Open,
	Putting OF Book was TRUE (the book was being written).

(3) ERnof avail
	File  Available  (Chan)  returned  FALSE.  This  signals  a
	temporary problem which can often be handled by retrying
	the Open or Establish - for instance, there is no room in some
	directory system for a new file.

(4) ERnoestab
	Estab OF Chan returned FALSE.  This indicates a more
	permanent problem--files simply may not be established on
	the channel.

(5) ERposmax
	One of the dimension arguments to Establish is too large.

(6) ERposneg
	One of the dimension arguments to Establish is too small.


5,3,  Channels: what's availablo

5.3.1	Line printer output: Stend out channel

reset		FALSE
set		FALSE
get		FALSE
put		TRUE
bin		FALSE
compress	TRUE
reidf		FALSE

pages per file		oo
linds per page		55
characters per line	132

55
132

	The nature of Stand out channel may be specified by the user when his program
starts execution. Currently there are three alternatives; it may be the same as Cons
out channel (i.e. it may be used for output to the terminal); it may be used for output
directly to the line printer; or it may be used for output to a file, of the SOS subfile
type. The first of these alternatives-is explained more fully in the next section. Of the
other two, it is more flexible to use an SOS-type file for Stand out channel, because
this file may still be listed at the end of a run, or typed, or saved for future use; but
setting Stand out channel for direct line printer output allows the user to open more
than one file on that channel (though not more than one at a time), and each of those
files is listed as soon as it is closed, not at the end of the run. The procedure for
specifying what is to be done with Stand out channel is explained elsewhere.

	For line printer output, the string parameter to Open is used as the name on the
banner page of the listing; however if that parameter is undefined or is a string of
zero length, the name on the banner will be "ALGOL68 USER". (This may be changed in
the future.)

	Newline is represented by a CR-LF sequence, Newpage by a form feed
character.

There are no specific error codes. The general error codes are as follows;

	(3)	ERnetavait	the File System is full.

	(4)	ERposmax	has the usual meaning

	(5)	ERposneg	has the usual meaning

	(7)	ERoneonly	a file has already been opened on this channel, and not yet
closed.


5.3.2	Terminal input & output: Cons in & Cons out channel

	Stand in channel represents (at this writing) the user's terminal. Output to the
terminal is done through a different channel, Cons out channel. (Cons in channel is
provided; it is the same as Stand in channel.) Both these channels are makeshift,
relying heavily on the Hydra terminal system and providing few features of their own.

Cons in channel			Cons out channel

reset		FALSE		FALSE
set		FALSE		FALSE
get		TRUE		FALSE
put		FALSE		TRUE
bin		FALSE		FALSE
compress	(N.A.)		TRUE
reidf		FALSE		FALSE

pages per file			oo
lines per page			oo
characters per line		79

	Newline is represented by a CR-LF sequence. Newpage is represented by the
FF character. Logical end of file may be signaled on input by typing control-Z.

	Note that Cons in channel and Cons out channel are completely independent of
each other; the system doesn't recognize that they're both dealing with the same
device. For instance the result of a call of Char number on a file opened on Cons out
channel depends only on the number of characters the program has output to that file
since the last Newline; if characters have also been typed in, in order to do input to
some file opened on Cons in channel, this number is not "right", i.e. it is not equal to
how far the terminal's cursor is from the left margin.

	Currently there are some glitches in the behavior of Cons in channel because of
the simpleminded nature of its implementation. It does input in line-at-a-time fashion,
i.e. the system does not recognize that characters have been typed in until a CR-LF
sequence has been typed after them. Also, due to a bug in the SIX12 system which is
used to support Algol68, lines of more than 71 characters may not be input (you can
try it, but it won't work).

	There are no error codes for Cons in channel, and the only error codes for Cons
out channel are ERposmax and ERposneg.


5.3.3	PAGE objects: Var & fixed page channel

	Two channels are available which can deal with PAGE objects. One tre.~ts a
PAGE as a file of one page, with fixed-length lines; this is called Fixed page channel,
and binary transput can be done using it. Currently the lines must be exactly 512
(that is, 2**9) characters in length; in the future, this may be made more flexible. The
other, Var page channel, uses variable length lines and pages, delimited by the usual
special ASCII characters; the physical size bounds of a file are determined at any point
by the number of characters which could be packed into the remainder of the page.
For compatibility with TECO, when a page which has been opened for writing is closed,
if the position of the logical file end is known the rest of the page is filled with
zeroes.


Fixed page channel		Var page channel

reset		TRUE		TRUE
sot		TRUE		FALSE
get		TRUE		TRUE
put		TRUE		TRUE
bin		TRUE		FALSE
compress	FALSE		TRUE
reidf		TRUE		TRUE

pages per file	1		(initially 8000)
lines per page	2**4 (16)	(initially 4000)
characters per line
		2**9 (512)	(initially 8000)

	Var page channel is one of the channels on which the logical end of a file may
be unknown.  A null character is assumed to indicate the logical end, as does the
physical end of the PAGE.

	The two page channels are directory-system oriented. The string passed to
OPEN or ESTABLISH is assumed to be in proper format to be passed directly to the
directory subsytem: its length should be a multiple of 10 characters, and each group of
ten characters is a name, padded if necessary with blanks. When Establish is called,
the page is put directly in &userdirectory when the file is closed. Note that this is
possible only because the ALGOL68 Commands object passes &userdirectory to the
ALGOL68 compiler as a parameter; if some other directory is passed, it will be used as
the standard base for directory lookups.  When Open is called, &userdirectory is
searched for the PAGE object named. Note that if the PAGE is protected so as to be
unmodifyable, the routine Put OF Var (or Fixed) page channel is set to return FALSE
for that file.

	If the file is never in write mood while it is opened, it is not replaced in the
directory when it is closed. If it is ever written, the old directory entry is replaced by
the changed page when the file is closed. If C.mmp crashes while a program is running
which is changing one or more PAGES, only the ones whose files have been closed will
be changed when C.mmp is restarted. No attempt is made to allow two programs, or
two parts of the same program, to change a PAGE simultaneously; although any number
of files may be opened at once using the same original PAGE object, only the
modifications made by one of them will have any permanent effect, namely, the one
which last calls Close.

	Reidf is not implemented yet. However, when it is implemented, it will take
effect only when the PAGE file is closed. That is, if C.mmp crashes before a file is
closed, the PAGE entry in the directory will not have been renamed, even if the
program has demonstrably called Reidf.

Error codes for both channels are as follows;

(1) ERbadidf
	the string argument to Establish is not checked (until the file
	is closed). The string argument to Open is checked, with the
	following specific error codes:

	0 - The directory lookup failed.

	1 - The object found was not a PAGE.

	2 - The page did not have COPYRTS (the program could not
		make a temporary copy of it for its own use).


(4) ERposmax	has the usual meaning

(5) ERposneg	has the usual meaning


5.3.4	SOS files: SOS file channel

	This channel can do sequential input or output to files of the SOS subfile type.
if someone wants it enough, the SOS subfile system maintainers will implement random
access to such files, whereupon the Algol68 system maintainers will promptly and
cheerfully upgrade this channel to allow random access.

Sos file channel

reset		FALSE
set		FALSE
get		TRUE
put		TRUE
bin		FALSE
compress	TRUE
reidf		TRUE

pages per file		oo
lines per page		oo
characters per line		256

	Unfortunately, there is not and probably never will be any relation between the
line numbers provided by SOS and the line numbers provided by the Algol68 system.
For instance, if a program is doing transput to an SOS file, and is on the fifth line of a
page, a call of the routine "line number" will inevitably return 5; whereas the SOS line
number -associated with that line is likely to be 500, and could be practically anything
greater than or equal to 5.

	Like the page channels, the SOS file channel is directory-system oriented. The
behavior of REIDF, however, when it is implemented, still be different; it will take effect
immediately, and in fact its effect will be noted even it the file is scratched.

Error codes for both channels are as follows:

(1) ERbadidf
	the string argument to Establish is not checked (until the file
	is closed). The string argument to Open is checked, with the
	following specific error codes:

	0 - The directory lookup failed.

	1 - The object found was not a file of the SOS subfile type.

	2 - The file could not be opened either for reading or
		writing.

(2) ERnowrite	The file is currently opened for writing.

(4) ERposmax	has the usual meaning

(5) ERposneg	has the usual meaning
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